Unification of Germany | references

References

  1. ^ Blackbourn, David (1997) The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780-1918, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Gunter Mai, [2000] Die Erfurter Union und das Erfurter Unionsparlament 1850. Köln: Böhlau
  3. ^ See, for example, James Allen Vann, The Swabian Kreis: Institutional Growth in the Holy Roman Empire 1648–1715. Vol. LII, Studies Presented to International Commission for the History of Representative and Parliamentary Institutions. Bruxelles, 1975. Mack Walker. German home towns: community, state, and general estate, 1648–1871. Ithaca, 1998.
  4. ^ John G. Gagliardo, Reich and Nation. The Holy Roman Empire as Idea and Reality, 1763–1806, Indiana University Press, l980, p. 278–279.
  5. ^ Robert A. Kann. History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918, Los Angeles, 1974, p. 221. In his abdication, Francis released all former estates from their duties and obligations to him, and took upon himself solely the title of King of Austria, which had been established since 1804. Golo Mann, Deutsche Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Frankfurt am Main, 2002, p. 70.
  6. ^ "Address to the German Nation". www.historyman.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  7. ^ James J. Sheehan, German History, 1780–1866, Oxford, 1989, p. 434.
  8. ^ Jakob Walter, and Marc Raeff. The diary of a Napoleonic foot soldier. Princeton, N.J., 1996.
  9. ^ Sheehan, pp. 384–387.
  10. ^ Although the Prussian army had gained its reputation in the Seven Years' War, its humiliating defeat at Jena and Auerstadt crushed the pride many Prussians felt in their soldiers. During their Russian exile, several officers, including Carl von Clausewitz, contemplated reorganization and new training methods. Sheehan, p. 323.
  11. ^ Sheehan, pp. 322–323.
  12. ^ David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley. The peculiarities of German history: bourgeois society and politics in nineteenth-century Germany. Oxford & New York, 1984, part 1; Thomas Nipperdey, German History From Napoleon to Bismarck, 1800–1871, New York, Oxford, 1983. Chapter 1.
  13. ^ Sheehan, pp. 398–410; Hamish Scott, The Birth of a Great Power System, 1740–1815, US, 2006, pp. 329–361.
  14. ^ Sheehan, pp. 398–410.
  15. ^ Jean Berenger. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1700–1918. C. Simpson, Trans. New York: Longman, 1997, ISBN 0-582-09007-5. pp. 96–97.
  16. ^ Sheehan, pp. 460–470. German Historical Institute
  17. ^ Lloyd Lee, Politics of Harmony: Civil Service, Liberalism, and Social Reform in Baden, 1800–1850, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1980.
  18. ^ Adam Zamoyski, Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, New York, 2007, pp. 98–115, 239–40.
  19. ^ L.B. Namier, (1952) Avenues of History. London, ONT, 1952, p. 34.
  20. ^ Nipperdey, pp. 1–3.
  21. ^ Sheehan, pp. 407–408, 444.
  22. ^ Sheehan, pp. 442–445.
  23. ^ Sheehan, pp. 465–467; Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 106–107.
  24. ^ a b Wolfgang Keller and Carol Shiue, The Trade Impact of the Customs Union, Boulder, University of Colorado, 5 March 2013, pp.10 and 18
  25. ^ Florian Ploeckl. The Zollverein and the Formation of a Customs Union, Discussion Paper no. 84 in the Economic and Social History series, Nuffield College, Oxford, Nuffield College. Retrieved from www.nuff.ox.ac.uk/Economics/History March 2017; p. 23
  26. ^ Sheehan, p. 465.
  27. ^ Sheehan, p. 466.
  28. ^ Sheehan, pp. 467–468.
  29. ^ Sheehan, p. 502.
  30. ^ Sheehan, p. 469.
  31. ^ Sheehan, p. 458.
  32. ^ Sheehan, pp. 466–467.
  33. ^ They traced the roots of the German language, and drew its different lines of development together. The Brothers Grimm online. Joint Publications.
  34. ^ (in German) Hans Lulfing, Baedecker, Karl, Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, 1953, p. 516 f.
  35. ^ (in German) Peter Rühmkorf, Heinz Ludwig Arnold, Das Lied der Deutschen Göttingen: Wallstein, 2001, ISBN 3-89244-463-3, pp. 11–14.
  36. ^ Raymond Dominick III, The Environmental Movement in Germany, Bloomington, Indiana University, 1992, pp. 3–41.
  37. ^ Jonathan Sperber, Rhineland radicals: the democratic movement and the revolution of 1848–1849. Princeton, N.J., 1993.
  38. ^ a b Sheehan, pp. 610–613.
  39. ^ Sheehan, p. 610.
  40. ^ Sheehan, p. 612.
  41. ^ Sheehan, p. 613.
  42. ^ David Blackbourn, Marpingen: apparitions of the Virgin Mary in nineteenth-century Germany. New York, 1994.
  43. ^ Sperber, Rhineland radicals. p. 3.
  44. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, p. 127.
  45. ^ Sheehan, pp. 610–615.
  46. ^ (in German) Badische Heimat/Landeskunde online 2006 Veit's Pauls Church Germania. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
  47. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 138–164.
  48. ^ Jonathan Sperber, Revolutionary Europe, 1780–1850, New York, 2000.
  49. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 176–179.
  50. ^ Examples of this argument appear in: Ralf Dahrendorf, German History, (1968), pp. 25–32; (in German) Hans Ulrich Wehler, Das Deutsche Kaiserreich, 1871–1918, Göttingen, 1973, pp. 10–14; Leonard Krieger, The German Idea of Freedom, Chicago, 1957; Raymond Grew, Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States, Princeton, 1978, pp. 312–345; Jürgen Kocka and Allan Mitchell. Bourgeois society in nineteenth-century Europe. Oxford, 1993; Jürgen Kocka, "German History before Hitler: The Debate about the German Sonderweg." Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 23, No. 1 (January, 1988), pp. 3–16; Volker Berghahn, Modern Germany. Society, Economy and Politics in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, 1982.
  51. ^ World Encyclopedia V.3 p. 542.
  52. ^ For a summary of this argument, see David Blackbourn, and Geoff Eley. The peculiarities of German history: bourgeois society and politics in nineteenth-century Germany. Oxford & New York, 1984, part 1.
  53. ^ Blackbourn and Eley. Peculiarities, Part I.
  54. ^ Blackbourn and Eley, Peculiarities, Chapter 2.
  55. ^ Blackbourn and Eley, Peculiarities, pp. 286–293.
  56. ^ Jürgen Kocka, "Comparison and Beyond.'" History and Theory, Vol. 42, No. 1 (February, 2003), pp. 39–44, and Jürgen Kocka, "Asymmetrical Historical Comparison: The Case of the German Sonderweg", History and Theory, Vol. 38, No. 1 (February, 1999), pp. 40–50.
  57. ^ For a representative analysis of this perspective, see Richard J. Evans, Rethinking German history: nineteenth-century Germany and the origins of the Third Reich. London, 1987.
  58. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1914–1918, Oxford, 1954, p. 37.
  59. ^ J.G.Droysen, Modern History Sourcebook: Documents of German Unification, 1848–1871. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  60. ^ Zamoyski, pp. 100–115.
  61. ^ Blackbourn, The long nineteenth century, pp. 160–175.
  62. ^ The remainder of the letter exhorts the Germans to unification: "This role of world leadership, left vacant as things are today, might well be occupied by the German nation. You Germans, with your grave and philosophic character, might well be the ones who could win the confidence of others and guarantee the future stability of the international community. Let us hope, then, that you can use your energy to overcome your moth-eaten thirty tyrants of the various German states. Let us hope that in the center of Europe you can then make a unified nation out of your fifty millions. All the rest of us would eagerly and joyfully follow you." Denis Mack Smith (editor). Garibaldi (Great Lives Observed), Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1969, p. 76.
  63. ^ Mack Smith, Denis (1994). Mazzini. Yale University Press. pp. 11–12.
  64. ^ Holt, p. 27.
  65. ^ Holt, pp. 13–14.
  66. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 175–179.
  67. ^ Hollyday, 1970, pp. 16–18.
  68. ^ Blackbourn, Peculiarities, Part I.
  69. ^ Bismarck had "cut his teeth" on German politics, and German politicians, in Frankfurt: a quintessential politician, Bismarck had built his power-base by absorbing and co-opting measures from throughout the political spectrum. He was first and foremost a politician, and in this lied his strength. Furthermore, since he trusted neither Moltke nor Roon, he was reluctant to enter a military enterprise over which he would have no control. Mann, Chapter 6, pp. 316–395.
  70. ^ Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany, Ithaca, New York, 2005, pp. 90–108; 324–333.
  71. ^ The Situation of Germany. (PDF) – The New York Times, July 1, 1866.
  72. ^ Michael Eliot Howard, The Franco-Prussian War: the German invasion of France, 1870–1871. New York, MacMillan, 1961, p. 40.
  73. ^ Mann, pp. 390–395.
  74. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, Bismarck: The Man and the Statesman. Oxford, Clarendon, 1988. Chapter 1, and Conclusion.
  75. ^ Howard, pp. 40–57.
  76. ^ Sheehan, pp. 900–904; Wawro, pp. 4–32; Holt, p. 75.
  77. ^ Holt, p. 75.
  78. ^ Sheehan, pp. 900–906.
  79. ^ Sheehan, p. 906; Geoffrey Wawro, The Austro Prussian War: Austria's War with Prussia and Italy in 1866. Cambridge, Cambridge University, 1996, pp. 82–84.
  80. ^ Sheehan, pp. 905–906.
  81. ^ Sheehan, p. 909.
  82. ^ Wawro, pp. 50–60; 75–79.
  83. ^ Wawro, pp. 57–75.
  84. ^ Sheehan, pp. 908–909
  85. ^ Taylor, Bismarck, pp. 87–88.
  86. ^ Sheehan, p. 910.
  87. ^ Sheehan, pp. 905–910.
  88. ^ Rosita Rindler Schjerve Diglossia and Power: Language Policies and Practice in the Nineteenth Century Habsburg Empire, 2003, ISBN 3-11-017653-X, pp. 199–200.
  89. ^ Bridge and Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System 1814–1914.
  90. ^ Sheehan, pp. 909–910; Wawro, Chapter 11.
  91. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, Chapter V: From Reaction to Unification, pp. 225–269.
  92. ^ Howard, pp. 4–60.
  93. ^ Howard, pp. 50–57.
  94. ^ Howard, pp. 55–56.
  95. ^ Howard, pp. 56–57.
  96. ^ Howard, pp. 55–59.
  97. ^ Howard, pp. 64–68.
  98. ^ Howard, pp. 218–222.
  99. ^ Howard, pp. 222–230.
  100. ^ Taylor, Bismarck, p. 126
  101. ^ Die Reichsgründung 1871 (The Foundation of the Empire, 1871), Lebendiges virtuelles Museum Online, accessed 2008-12-22. German text translated: [...] on the wishes of Wilhelm I, on the 170th anniversary of the elevation of the House of Brandenburg to princely status on 18 January 1701, the assembled German princes and high military officials proclaimed Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Versailles Palace.
  102. ^ Taylor, Bismarck, p. 133.
  103. ^ Crankshaw, Edward. Bismarck. New York, The Viking Press, 1981, p. 299.
  104. ^ Howard, Chapter XI: the Peace, pp. 432–456.
  105. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 255–257.
  106. ^ Alon Confino. The Nation as a Local Metaphor: Württemberg, Imperial Germany, and National Memory, 1871–1918. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
  107. ^ Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830–1910. New York, 2005, p. 1.
  108. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, p. 267.
  109. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 225–301.
  110. ^ David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley. The peculiarities of German history: bourgeois society and politics in nineteenth-century Germany. Oxford [Oxfordshire] and New York, Oxford University Press, 1984. Peter Blickle, Heimat: a critical theory of the German idea of homeland, Studies in German literature, linguistics and culture. Columbia, South Carolina, Camden House; Boydell & Brewer, 2004. Robert W. Scribner, Sheilagh C. Ogilvie, Germany: a new social and economic history. London and New York, Arnold and St. Martin's Press, 1996.
  111. ^ To name only a few of these studies: Geoff Eley, Reshaping the German right: radical nationalism and political change after Bismarck. New Haven, 1980. Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830–1910.New York, 2005. Richard J. Evans,Society and politics in Wilhelmine Germany. London and New York, 1978. Thomas Nipperdey, Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck, 1800–1866. Princeton, New Jersey, 1996. Jonathan Sperber, Popular Catholicism in nineteenth-century Germany. Princeton, N.J., 1984. (1997).
  112. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 240–290.
  113. ^ For more on this idea, see, for example, Joseph R. Llobera, and Goldsmiths' College. The role of historical memory in (ethno)nation-building, Goldsmiths sociology papers. London, 1996; (in German) Alexandre Escudier, Brigitte Sauzay, and Rudolf von Thadden. Gedenken im Zwiespalt: Konfliktlinien europäischen Erinnerns, Genshagener Gespräche; vol. 4. Göttingen: 2001; Alon Confino. The Nation as a Local Metaphor: Württemberg, Imperial Germany, and National Memory, 1871–1918. Chapel Hill, 1999.
  114. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 243–282.
  115. ^ Blackbourn, Long Century, pp. 283; 285–300.
  116. ^ Jonathan Sperber. Popular Catholicism in nineteenth-century Germany, Princeton, N.J., 1984.
  117. ^ Marion Kaplan, The making of the Jewish middle class: women, family, and identity in Imperial Germany, New York, 1991.
  118. ^ Kaplan, in particular, pp. 4–7 and Conclusion.
  119. ^ Blackbourn and Eley, Peculiarities, p. 241.
  120. ^ Karin Friedrich, The other Prussia: royal Prussia, Poland and liberty, 1569–1772, New York, 2000, p. 5.
  121. ^ Many modern historians describe this myth, without subscribing to it: for example, Rudy Koshar, Germany's Transient Pasts: Preservation and the National Memory in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill, 1998; Hans Kohn. German history; some new German views. Boston, 1954; Thomas Nipperdey, Germany history from Napoleon to Bismarck.
  122. ^ Josep R. Llobera and Goldsmiths' College. The role of historical memory in (ethno)nation-building. Goldsmiths sociology papers. London, Goldsmiths College, 1996.