## Turbulence | heat and momentum transfer |

- examples of turbulence
- features
- onset of turbulence
- heat and momentum transfer
- kolmogorov's theory of 1941
- see also
- references and notes
- further reading
- external links

When flow is turbulent, particles exhibit additional transverse motion which enhances the rate of energy and momentum exchange between them thus increasing the

Assume for a two-dimensional turbulent flow that one was able to locate a specific point in the fluid and measure the actual flow velocity **v** = (*v _{x}*,

and similarly for temperature (*T* = *T* + *T′*) and pressure (*P* = *P* + *P′*), where the primed quantities denote fluctuations superposed to the mean. This decomposition of a flow variable into a mean value and a turbulent fluctuation was originally proposed by

The heat flux and momentum transfer (represented by the shear stress τ) in the direction normal to the flow for a given time are

where c_{P} is the *μ*_{turb} is the coefficient of turbulent *k*_{turb} is the turbulent ^{[3]}