Lawyer | notes

Notes

  1. ^ Henry Campbell Black, Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed. (St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1979), 799.
  2. ^ Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr. & Angelo Dondi, Legal Ethics: A Comparative Study (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8047-4882-9), 20–23.
  3. ^ John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007),102–103.
  4. ^ Advocates Act, 1961 Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine, s. 2.
  5. ^ Carl W. Battle, The Patent Guide: A Friendly Guide to Protecting and Profiting from Patents (New York: Allworth Press, 1997), 49.
  6. ^ David G. Cooper and Michael J. Gibson, Introduction to Paralegal Studies, 2nd ed.(Clifton Park: Thomson Delmar Learning, 1998), 4.
  7. ^ "Rule 5.5: Unauthorized Practice of Law; Multijurisdictional Practice of Law". American Bar Association.
  8. ^ Richard L. Abel, "Lawyers in the Civil Law World," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 1–53 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 4.
  9. ^ Merryman, 105–109.
  10. ^ Walter O. Reyrauch, The Personality of Lawyers (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964), 27.
  11. ^ Jon T. Johnsen, "The Professionalization of Legal Counseling in Norway," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 54–123 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 91.
  12. ^ Kahei Rokumoto, "The Present State of Japanese Practicing Attorneys: On the Way to Full Professionalization?" in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 160–199 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 164.
  13. ^ Merryman, 105.
  14. ^ Hazard, 21–33.
  15. ^ Benoit Bastard and Laura Cardia-Vonèche, "The Lawyers of Geneva: an Analysis of Change in the Legal Profession," trans. by Richard L. Abel, in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 295–335 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 297.
  16. ^ Carlos Viladás Jene, "The Legal Profession in Spain: An Understudied but Booming Occupation," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 369–379 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 369.
  17. ^ Vittorio Olgiati and Valerio Pocar, "The Italian Legal Profession: An Institutional Dilemma," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 336–368 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 338.
  18. ^ Bastard, 299, and Hazard, 45.
  19. ^ Harry W. Arthurs, Richard Weisman, and Frederick H. Zemans, "Canadian Lawyers: A Peculiar Professionalism," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 123–185 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 124.
  20. ^ David Weisbrot, "The Australian Legal Profession: From Provincial Family Firms to Multinationals," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 244–317 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 250.
  21. ^ Georgina Murray, "New Zealand Lawyers: From Colonial GPs to the Servants of Capital," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 318–368 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 324.
  22. ^ Anne Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers in France," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, 185–219 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 208.
  23. ^ Hazard, 30–32.
  24. ^ Richard L. Abel, The Legal Profession in England and Wales (London: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 116.
  25. ^ See, e.g., Cal. Code. Civ. Proc. § 116.530 (preventing attorneys from appearing in small claims court except as parties or witnesses).
  26. ^ Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, "The Venezuelan Legal Profession: Lawyers in an Inegalitarian Society," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 380–399 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 387.
  27. ^ Gordon Kent, "Lawyerless Litigants: Is Justice Being Served?" Edmonton Journal, 27 January 2002, A1.
  28. ^ Alan Feuer, "Lawyering by Laymen: More Litigants Are Taking a Do-It-Yourself Tack," The New York Times, 22 January 2001, B1.
  29. ^ Fiona Boyle, Deveral Capps, Philip Plowden, Clare Sandford, A Practical Guide to Lawyering Skills, 3rd ed. (London: Cavendish Publishing, 2005), 47–50.
  30. ^ See Abel, England and Wales, 56 and 141.
  31. ^ Jene, 369.
  32. ^ a b Rokumoto, 164.
  33. ^ Anne Boigeol, "The French Bar: The Difficulties of Unifying a Divided Profession," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 258–294 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 263; and Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers," 206.
  34. ^ Richard L. Abel, American Lawyers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 132. See, e.g., Hines v. Lowrey, 305 85 (1938) (upholding limitation on attorneys' fees in veterans' benefits cases to $10); Walters v. National Ass'n of Radiation Survivors, 473 305 (1985) (same).
  35. ^ Paul J. Zwier & Anthony J. Bocchini, Fact Investigation: A Practical Guide to Interviewing, Counseling, and Case Theory Development (Louisville, CO: National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 2000), 13–44.
  36. ^ John H. Freeman, Client Management for Solicitors (London: Cavendish Publishing Ltd., 1997), 266–274.
  37. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 1 and 141.
  38. ^ J. R. Spencer and Richard M. Jackson, Jackson's Machinery of Justice, 8th ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 336.
  39. ^ R.E. Megarry, Lawyer and Litigant in England (London: Stevens and Sons, 1962), 32.
  40. ^ Maureen Paton, "Cab-rank exits," The Times, 9 October 2001, 1. This brief article explains the uneasy tension between solicitors and barristers, and the loopholes that have developed. For example, a barrister need not accept a case if the fee is too low or the barrister is just too busy.
  41. ^ Arthurs, 125; Johnsen, 74; and Pérez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 387.
  42. ^ Erhard Blankenburg and Ulrike Schultz, "German Advocates: A Highly Regulated Profession," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 124–159 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 124.
  43. ^ Joaquim Falcão, "Lawyers in Brazil," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 400–442 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 401.
  44. ^ Justine Fischer and Dorothy H. Lackmann, Unauthorized Practice Handbook: A Compilation of Statutes, Cases, and Commentary on the Unauthorized Practice of Law (Buffalo: William S. Hein Company, 1990), 30–35.
  45. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 185; Bastard, 318.
  46. ^ Kees Schuyt, "The Rise of Lawyers in the Dutch Welfare State," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 200–224 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 201.
  47. ^ Stephen J. McGarry, Multidisciplinary Practices and Partnerships: Lawyers, Consultants, and Clients, § 1.06[1] (New York: Law Journal Press, 2002), 1–29.
  48. ^ Holland & Marie. "HMLegal - Your Outsourced, In-House Counsel Solution". Holland & Marie. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  49. ^ Luc Huyse, "Legal Experts in Belgium," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 225–257 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 227.
  50. ^ Murray, 325; and Rokumoto, 164.
  51. ^ Lee Rousso, "Japan's New Patent Attorney Law Breaches Barrier Between The 'Legal' And 'Quasi-Legal' Professions: Integrity Of Japanese Patent Practice At Risk?" 10 Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y 781, 783–790 (2001).
  52. ^ Arthurs, 125; and Pérez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 387.
  53. ^ a b Huyse, 227.
  54. ^ Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers," 206.
  55. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 176; Hazard, 90–93; Murray, 325; and Pérez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 387.
  56. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 177.
  57. ^ Weisbrot, 292.
  58. ^ s. 14 Stamp Act 1804
  59. ^ Brian Abel-Smith and Robert Stevens, Lawyers and the Courts: A Sociological Study of the English Legal System, 1750–1965 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), 23.
  60. ^ Weisbrot, 251.
  61. ^ Arthurs, 125; Huyse, 227; and Schuyt, 201.
  62. ^ Simon Domberger and Avrom Sherr, "The Impact of Competition on Pricing and Quality of Legal Services," in The Regulatory Challenge, eds. Matthew Bishop, John Kay, Colin Mayer, 119–137 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 121–122.
  63. ^ Ralph Warner & Stephen Elias, Fed Up with the Legal System: What's Wrong & How to Fix It (Berkeley: Nolo Press, 1994), 11.
  64. ^ Hazard, 34–35; Huyse, 227; Merryman, 105, and Schuyt, 201.
  65. ^ Larry J. Siegel and Joseph J. Senna, Introduction to Criminal Justice, 10th ed. (Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005), 311–325.
  66. ^ Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, "Latin Legal Cultures in the Age of Globalization," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, 1–19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 6.
  67. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 45–59; Rokumoto, 165; and Schuyt, 204.
  68. ^ "Thinking About Law School?" (PDF). Law School Admission Council. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  69. ^ "ABA-Approved Law Schools". American Bar Association.
  70. ^ "The Bar Professional Training Course (BPTC)". Chambers Student. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  71. ^ Wayne L. Anderson and Marilyn J. Headrick, The Legal Profession: Is it for you? (Cincinnati: Thomson Executive Press, 1996), 52–53.
  72. ^ Anonymous, "Careers in the legal profession offer a variety of opportunities: While we may not think about it often, the legal system affects us every day," The Telegram, 14 April 2004, D8.
  73. ^ "ABA-Approved Law Schools". ABA. American Bar Association. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  74. ^ Christen Civiletto Carey and Kristen David Adams, The Practice of Law School: Getting In and Making the Most of Your Legal Education (New York: ALM Publishing, 2003), 525.
  75. ^ Hazard, 127–129; Merryman, 103; and Olgiati, 345.
  76. ^ Pérez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 384.
  77. ^ Robert H. Miller, Law School Confidential: A Complete Guide to the Law School Experience, By Students, for Students (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2000), 25–27.
  78. ^ Anderson, 4–10.
  79. ^ Blankenburg, 132; Friedman and Pérez-Perdomo, 6; Hazard, 124–128; and Olgiati, 345.
  80. ^ Sergio Lopez-Ayllon and Hector Fix-Figaro, " 'Faraway, So Close!' The Rule of Law and Legal Change in Mexico: 1970–2000," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, 285–351 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 324.
  81. ^ Herbert Hausmaninger, "Austrian Legal Education," 43 S. Tex. L. Rev. 387, 388 and 400 (2002).
  82. ^ Miller, 42–60.
  83. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 57; Miller, 25; and Murray, 337.
  84. ^ Falcão, 410.
  85. ^ J.S. Gandhi, "Past and Present: A Sociological Portrait of the Indian Legal Profession," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 369–382 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 375.
  86. ^ a b Lopez-Ayllon, 324.
  87. ^ Eliane Botelho Junqueira, "Brazil: The Road of Conflict Bound for Total Justice," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, 64–107 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 89.
  88. ^ Junqueira, 89.
  89. ^ Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, "Venezuela, 1958–1999: The Legal System in an Impaired Democracy," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Perez-Perdomo, 414–478 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 459. For example, a 1997 study found that not a single law school in Venezuela had bothered to integrate any part of the Convention on Children's Rights into its curriculum, even though Venezuela had signed the treaty in 1990 and subsequently modified its domestic laws to bring them into compliance. Rather than embark on curriculum reform, Venezuelan law schools now offer special postgraduate courses so that recent graduates can bring their legal knowledge up-to-date with current law.
  90. ^ a b Abel, American Lawyers, 62.
  91. ^ a b Lopez-Ayllon, 330.
  92. ^ Hazard, 127, 129, & 133; Miller, 335–341.
  93. ^ Alan A. Paterson, "The Legal Profession in Scotland: An Endangered Species or a Problem Case for Market Theory?" in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 76–122 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 89.
  94. ^ G. Jeffrey MacDonald, "The self-made lawyer: Not every attorney goes to law school," The Christian Science Monitor, 3 June 2003, 13.
  95. ^ Hazard, 129 & 133.
  96. ^ Weisbrot, 266.
  97. ^ Holland & Marie. "HMLegal - Your Outsourced, In-House Counsel Solution". Holland & Marie. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  98. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 167–175; Abel, England and Wales, 214; Arthurs, 131; Gandhi, 374; Merryman, 102, and Weisbrot, 277.
  99. ^ Anderson, 124–131.
  100. ^ Gandhi, 374.
  101. ^ In general, see, Legomsky, Stephen H. (1990) Specialized Justice: Courts, Administrative Tribunals, and a Cross-National Theory of Specialization Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 978-0-19-825429-4
  102. ^ Merryman, 102–105.
  103. ^ Although it is common for former American judges to return to private practice, it is highly controversial for them to suggest that they still retain any judicial powers (for example, by wearing judicial robes in advertisements). Brad McElhinny, "Workman criticized for using robe in ad: Group files State Bar complaint about the way former justice seeks clients," Charleston Daily Mail, 3 February 2005, 1A.
  104. ^ Blankenburg, 133.
  105. ^ Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers," 202.
  106. ^ Bernard Michael Ortwein II, "The Swedish Legal System: An Introduction," 13 Ind. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 405, 440–445 (2003).
  107. ^ Hazard, 39–43; Olgiati, 353.
  108. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 122.
  109. ^ Michael H. Trotter, Profit and the Practice of Law: What's Happened to the Legal Profession (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 50.
  110. ^ Herbert M. Kritzer, "The fracturing legal profession: the case of plaintiffs' personal injury lawyers," 8 Int'l J. Legal Prof. 225, 228–231 (2001).
  111. ^ Information for lawyers - Penalista para hurto
  112. ^ Texas Bar Rule 7.02(a)(6) - TexasBar.com
  113. ^ Anderson, 111–117.
  114. ^ Hazard, 39.
  115. ^ Junqueira, 92. According to this source, as of 2003, there were 901 law firms with more than 50 lawyers in the United States.
  116. ^ Gary Slapper and David Kelly, The English Legal System, 7th ed. (London: Cavendish Publishing Ltd., 2004), 550.
  117. ^ Weisbrot, 264.
  118. ^ a b Johnsen, 86.
  119. ^ Boigeol, “The French Bar,” 271; Merryman, 106, and Junqueira, 89.
  120. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 127 and 243–249; Arthurs, 135; and Weisbrot, 279.
  121. ^ Bastard, 295; and Falcão, 401.
  122. ^ Blankenburg, 139.
  123. ^ Jene, 370.
  124. ^ Paterson, 79.
  125. ^ Arthurs, 143.
  126. ^ Murray, 339; Rokumoto, 163; and Schuyt, 207.
  127. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 116.
  128. ^ Arthurs, 139.
  129. ^ Weisbrot, 244.
  130. ^ Bastard, 299.
  131. ^ Falcão, 404.
  132. ^ Olgiati, 343.
  133. ^ Huyse, 239.
  134. ^ Howard D. Fisher, The German Legal System and Legal Language, 3rd ed. (London: Routledge Cavendish, 2002), 208–209.
  135. ^ Andrews v Law Society of British Columbia [1989] 1 SCR 143.
  136. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 68.
  137. ^ Mary C. Daly, "Ethical and Liability Issues in International Legal Practice," in Comparative Law Yearbook of International Business, vol. 17, eds. Dennis Campbell and Susan Cotter, 223–268 (London: Kluwer Law International, 1995), 233.
  138. ^ For a classic explanation of the self-regulating legal profession, see the Preamble to the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, ¶¶ 10–13.
  139. ^ Abel, Civil Law World, 10; Johnsen, 70; Olgiati, 339; and Rokumoto, 161.
  140. ^ Falcão, 423.
  141. ^ Maria da Gloria Bonelli, "Lawyers' Associations and the Brazilian State, 1843–1997," 28 Law & Soc. Inquiry 1045, 1065 (2003).
  142. ^ Kandis Scott, "Decollectivization and Democracy: Current Law Practice in Romania," 36 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 817, 820. (2004).
  143. ^ Timothy J. Tyler, "Judging the Past: Germany's Post-Unification Lawyers' Admissions Review Law," 29 Tex. Int'l L.J. 457, 472 (1994).
  144. ^ Michael J. Moser, "Globalization and Legal Services in China: Current Status and Future Directions," in The Internationalization of the Practice of Law, eds. Jens I. Drolhammer and Michael Pfeifer, 127–136 (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001), 128–129.
  145. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 142–143; Abel, England and Wales, 29; and Arthurs, 148.
  146. ^ Arthurs, 138; and Weisbrot, 281.
  147. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 246–247.
  148. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 147; Abel, England and Wales, 135 and 250; Arthurs, 146; Hazard, 135; Paterson, 104; and Weisbrot, 284.
  149. ^ Richard L. Abel, English Lawyers Between Market and State: The Politics of Professionalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 374–375.
  150. ^ William T. Gallagher, "Ideologies of Professionalism and the Politics of Self-Regulation in the California State Bar," 22 Pepp. L. Rev. 485, 490–491 (1995).
  151. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 132–133.
  152. ^ Arthurs, 141.
  153. ^ Boigeol, “The French Bar,” 274; and Olgiati, 344.
  154. ^ Blankenburg, 126; and Boigeol, “The French Bar,” 272.
  155. ^ Abel, England and Wales, 37.
  156. ^ Gerald W. Gawalt, "Sources of Anti-Lawyer Sentiment in Massachusetts, 1740–1840," in Essays in Nineteenth-Century American Legal History, ed. Wythe Holt, 624–648 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976), 624–625. According to this source, the strong anti-lawyer sentiment of the period was rather ironic, since lawyers were actually so scarce in the American colonies that a 1715 Massachusetts law forbade litigants from retaining two lawyers because of the risk of depriving one's opponent of counsel.
  157. ^ Blankenburg, 127.
  158. ^ Weisbrot, 246.
  159. ^ Arthurs, 128.
  160. ^ Marc Galanter, "Predators and Parasites: Lawyer-Bashing and Civil Justice, " 28 Ga. L. Rev. 633, 644–648 (1994).
  161. ^ Stephen D. Easton, "Fewer Lawyers? Try Getting Your Day in Court," Wall Street Journal, 27 November 1984, 1. This article rebuts the common complaint of too many lawyers in the U.S. by pointing out that it is virtually impossible for a plaintiff to prevail in the vast majority of countries with less lawyers, like Japan, because there are simply not enough lawyers or judges to go around. Even wrongful death cases with clear evidence of fault can drag on for decades in Japan. Thus, any reduction in the number of lawyers would result in reduced enforcement of individual rights.
  162. ^ a b Gerry Spence, With Justice For None: Destroying An American Myth (New York: Times Books, 1989), 27–40
  163. ^ Paterson, 76.
  164. ^ Jerold Auerbach, Unequal Justice: Lawyers and Social Change in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 301.
  165. ^ For examples of legal self-help books written by lawyers which concede that the profession has a bad image, see Mark H. McCormack, The Terrible Truth About Lawyers (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1987), 11; Kenneth Menendez, Taming the Lawyers (Santa Monica, CA, Merritt Publishing, 1996), 2; and Stuart Kahan and Robert M. Cavallo, Do I Really Need A Lawyer? (Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company, 1979), 2.
  166. ^ Gayle White, "So, a lawyer, a skunk and a catfish walk into a bar...: No shortage of jokes," National Post, 27 May 2006, FW8.
  167. ^ Andrew Roth & Jonathan Roth, Devil's Advocates: The Unnatural History of Lawyers (Berkeley: Nolo Press, 1989), ix.
  168. ^ Bryan Horrigan, "Myths, Fictions, and Realities" (chap. 2), in Adventures in Law and Justice: Exploring Big Legal Questions in Everyday Life, Law at Large, 55–82 (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2003, ISBN 64.
  169. ^ "Lawyer", in The Devil's Dictionary (1911), electronic entry at Dict.org. Also found quoted in many legal books.
  170. ^ Hazard, 60.
  171. ^ Hazard, 60.
  172. ^ June, Daniel, "Increase of Kentucky Lawyer Suicides Exposes the Unique Stresses of the Profession"
  173. ^ "Seven Reasons Why Practicing Law Might Be More Stressful Than Spending 18 Months in a POW Camp". BCGSearch.com. 2015-05-11. Retrieved 2017-06-12.
  174. ^ Murray, Bob (2017-01-04). "Dealing with depression". Retrieved 2017-01-04.
  175. ^ United States Census Bureau, American Community Survey
  176. ^ United States Census Bureau, Current Population Survey
  177. ^ United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics
  178. ^ After the JD II
  179. ^ Anderson, 111–112.
  180. ^ Herbert M. Kritzer, Risks, Reputations, and Rewards: Contingency Fee Legal Practice in the United States (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004), 258–259. According to this source, contingency fees (or de facto equivalents) are allowed, as of 2004, in Canada, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, the Dominican Republic, Greece, France, Brazil, Japan, and the United States.
  181. ^ Schwall, Benjamin (2015-06-25). "High-Powered Attorney Incentives: A Look at the New Indigent Defense System in South Carolina". Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. SSRN SSRN 2623202. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  182. ^ "Research - Amanda Y. Agan". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
  183. ^ See Fleischmann Distilling Corp. v. Maier Brewing Co., 386 714 (1967) (reviewing history of the American Rule).
  184. ^ Anderson, 120–121.
  185. ^ Matthias Kilian and Francis Regan, "Legal expenses insurance and legal aid—two sides of the same coin? The experience from Germany and Sweden," 11 Int'l J. Legal Prof. 233, 239 (2004). According to this article, pro bono arrangements are illegal in Germany.
  186. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 129–130.
  187. ^ Abel, American Lawyers, 133.
  188. ^ Arthurs, 161; Murray, 342; Pérez-Perdomo, 392; Schuyt, 211; and Weisbrot, 288.
  189. ^ Boigeol, “The French Bar,” 280; and Jene, 376.
  190. ^ "We provide professional legal advice and representation to those who can't afford it". Legal Aid South Africa. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  191. ^ Olgiati, 354, and Huyse, 240.
  192. ^ Huyse, 240–241.
  193. ^ Blankenburg, 143.
  194. ^ Robert J. Bonner, Lawyers and Litigants in Ancient Athens: The Genesis of the Legal Profession (New York: Benjamin Blom, 1927), 202.
  195. ^ Bonner, 204.
  196. ^ Bonner, 206.
  197. ^ Bonner, 208–209.
  198. ^ Hazard, 18.
  199. ^ John A. Crook, Law and Life of Ancient Rome (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967), 90.
  200. ^ Crook, 90. Crook cites Tacitus, Annals VI, 5 and 7 for this point. For more information about the complex political affair that forced Emperor Claudius to decide this issue, see The Annals of Tacitus, Book VI (Franklin Center, PA: The Franklin Library, 1982), 208.
  201. ^ Crook, 91.
  202. ^ Crook, 87.
  203. ^ a b c d Crook, 88.
  204. ^ Crook, 89.
  205. ^ Crook, 90.
  206. ^ A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey, vol. 1 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), 507.
  207. ^ Fritz Schulz, History of Roman Legal Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946), 113.
  208. ^ Schulz, 113.
  209. ^ Schulz, 268.
  210. ^ Jones, 508–510.
  211. ^ Jones, 512–513.
  212. ^ a b c Jones, 511.
  213. ^ a b Jones, 515.
  214. ^ James A. Brundage, "The Rise of the Professional Jurist in the Thirteenth Century," 20 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com. 185 (1994).
  215. ^ Brundage, 185–186.
  216. ^ Brundage, 186–187.
  217. ^ Brundage, 188.
  218. ^ Brundage, 188–189.
  219. ^ Brundage, 190.
  220. ^ a b Brundage, 189.
  221. ^ Statute of Westminster 1275, ch. 29.
  222. ^ John Hamilton Baker, An Introduction to British Legal History, 3rd ed. (London: Butterworths, 1990), 179.
  223. ^ Lucien Karpik, French Lawyers: A Study in Collective Action, 1274 to 1994 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 21.
  224. ^ a b Carol Rice Andrews, Standards of Conduct for Lawyers: An 800-Year Evolution, 57 SMU L. Rev. 1385 (2004).
  225. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008. García y García, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  226. ^ Regio Decreto 4 giugno 1938, n.1269 Archived 2009-08-09 at the Wayback Machine, Art. 48. (in Italian). Accessed February 10, 2009.
  227. ^ Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, pp. 430, 432, 434, 436
  228. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education Archived 2009-03-04 at the Archived 2016-03-08 at the Archived 2008-06-26 at the Archived 2008-04-13 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopædia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopædia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).
  229. ^ American Bar Association. Model Code of Professional Responsibility, Disciplinary Rule 2–102(E). Cornell University Law School, LLI. Accessed February 10, 2009. Peter H. Geraghty. Abanet.org Archived 2008-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, "Are There Any Doctors Or Associates In the House?" American Bar Association, 2007.
  230. ^ Florida Bar News.In Italy J.D. holders use the title of Dottore, but lawyers who have qualified for the bar only use the style Avvocato. Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues. Florida Bar Association, July 1, 2006.
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