^"empire". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 26 October 2018. any monarchy that for reasons of history, prestige, etc, has an emperor rather than a king as head of state
^"empire". Your Dictionary. LoveToKnow, Corp. 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018. government by an emperor or empress
^"empire". Vocabulary.com Dictionary. Retrieved 26 October 2018. a monarchy with an emperor as head of state
^"empire". Collins English Dictionary. 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018. government by an emperor or empress
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^Yuri Pines, Envisioning Eternal Empire: Chinese Political Thought of the Warring States Era, (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2009).
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