Universal suffrage

  • universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote to all adult citizens, regardless of wealth, income, gender, social status, race, ethnicity, or any other restriction, subject only to relatively minor exceptions.[1][2] in its original 19th-century usage by reformers in britain, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement.[3][4]

    there are variations among countries in terms of specifics of the right to vote; the minimum age is usually between 18 and 25 years (see age of majority) and "the insane, certain classes of convicted criminals, and those punished for certain electoral offenses" sometimes lack the right to vote.[2]

    in most countries, universal adult suffrage (the right to vote but not necessarily the right to be a candidate) followed about a generation after universal male franchise. notable exceptions in europe were france, where women could not vote until 1944, greece (1952), and switzerland (1971).

    in the first modern democracies, governments restricted the vote to those with property and wealth, which almost always meant a minority of the male population. in some jurisdictions, other restrictions existed, such as requiring voters to practice a given religion. in all modern democracies, the number of people who could vote has increased progressively with time. in the 19th century in europe, great britain and north america, there were movements advocating "universal [male] suffrage".

    in the united states, after the principle of "one man, one vote" was established in the early 1960s by u.s. supreme court under earl warren,[5][6] the u.s. congress together with the warren court continued to protect and expand the voting rights of all americans, especially african americans, through civil rights act of 1964, voting rights act of 1965 and several supreme court rulings.[7][8] in addition, the term "suffrage" is also associated specifically with women's suffrage; a movement to extend the franchise to women began in the mid-nineteenth century and culminated in 1920, when the united states ratified the nineteenth amendment to the united states constitution, guaranteeing the right of women to vote.

  • expanding suffrage
  • dates by country
  • women's suffrage
  • youth suffrage, children's suffrage, and suffrage in school
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote to all adult citizens, regardless of wealth, income, gender, social status, race, ethnicity, or any other restriction, subject only to relatively minor exceptions.[1][2] In its original 19th-century usage by reformers in Britain, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement.[3][4]

There are variations among countries in terms of specifics of the right to vote; the minimum age is usually between 18 and 25 years (see age of majority) and "the insane, certain classes of convicted criminals, and those punished for certain electoral offenses" sometimes lack the right to vote.[2]

In most countries, universal adult suffrage (the right to vote but not necessarily the right to be a candidate) followed about a generation after universal male franchise. Notable exceptions in Europe were France, where women could not vote until 1944, Greece (1952), and Switzerland (1971).

In the first modern democracies, governments restricted the vote to those with property and wealth, which almost always meant a minority of the male population. In some jurisdictions, other restrictions existed, such as requiring voters to practice a given religion. In all modern democracies, the number of people who could vote has increased progressively with time. In the 19th century in Europe, Great Britain and North America, there were movements advocating "universal [male] suffrage".

In the United States, after the principle of "one man, one vote" was established in the early 1960s by U.S. Supreme Court under Earl Warren,[5][6] the U.S. Congress together with the Warren Court continued to protect and expand the voting rights of all Americans, especially African Americans, through Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 and several Supreme Court rulings.[7][8] In addition, the term "suffrage" is also associated specifically with women's suffrage; a movement to extend the franchise to women began in the mid-nineteenth century and culminated in 1920, when the United States ratified the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing the right of women to vote.