## Turbulence |

in

,fluid dynamics **turbulence**or**turbulent flow**is fluid motion characterized by changes inchaotic andpressure . it is in contrast to aflow velocity , which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between those layers.laminar flow ^{[1]}turbulence is commonly observed in everyday phenomena such as

, fast flowing rivers, billowing storm clouds, or smoke from a chimney, and most fluid flows occurring in nature or created in engineering applications are turbulent.surf ^{[2]}^{[3]}^{:2}turbulence is caused by excessive kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow, which overcomes the damping effect of the fluid's viscosity. for this reason turbulence is commonly realized in low viscosity fluids. in general terms, in turbulent flow, unsteady appear of many sizes which interact with each other, consequentlyvortices due to friction effects increases. this increases the energy needed to pump fluid through a pipe. turbulence can be exploited, for example, by devices such as aerodynamicdrag on aircraft that "spoil" the laminar flow to increase drag and reduce lift.spoilers the onset of turbulence can be predicted by the dimensionless

, the ratio of kinetic energy to viscous damping in a fluid flow. however, turbulence has long resisted detailed physical analysis, and the interactions within turbulence create a very complex phenomenon.reynolds number has described turbulence as the most important unsolved problem in classical physics.richard feynman ^{[4]}- examples of turbulence
- features
- onset of turbulence
- heat and momentum transfer
- kolmogorov's theory of 1941
- see also
- references and notes
- further reading
- external links

In **turbulence** or **turbulent flow** is fluid motion characterized by ^{[1]}

Turbulence is commonly observed in everyday phenomena such as ^{[2]}^{[3]}^{:2} Turbulence is caused by excessive kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow, which overcomes the damping effect of the fluid's viscosity. For this reason turbulence is commonly realized in low viscosity fluids. In general terms, in turbulent flow, unsteady

The onset of turbulence can be predicted by the dimensionless ^{[4]}