Todor Zhivkov

  • todor zhivkov
    todor zhivkov.jpg
    official photograph of todor zhivkov.
    general secretary of the central committee of the bulgarian communist party
    (to 4 april 1981 as first secretary)
    in office
    4 march 1954 – 10 november 1989
    preceded byvalko chervenkov
    succeeded bypetar mladenov
    1st chairman of the state council
    (to 12 june 1978 as president)
    in office
    7 july 1971 – 17 november 1989
    preceded bygeorgi traykov (as chairman of the presidium of the national assembly)
    succeeded byzhelyu zhelev
    36th prime minister of bulgaria
    in office
    19 november 1962 – 7 july 1971
    preceded byanton yugov
    succeeded bystanko todorov
    48th mayor of sofia
    in office
    27 may 1949 – 1 november 1949
    preceded by dobri radistilov
    succeeded by ivan pashov
    personal details
    born
    todor hristov zhivkov

    (1911-09-07)7 september 1911
    pravets, kingdom of bulgaria
    died5 august 1998(1998-08-05) (aged 86)
    sofia, republic of bulgaria
    nationalitybulgarian
    political partybulgarian communist party (1932–1989)
    bulgarian socialist party (1998)
    spouse(s)
    mara maleeva-zhivkova
    (m. 1936; died 1971)
    childrenlyudmila (1942–1981)
    vladimir (born 1952)
    signature

    todor khristov zhivkov (bulgarian: Тодор Христов Живков; 7 september 1911 – 5 august 1998) was a bulgarian communist statesman who served as the de facto leader of the people's republic of bulgaria (prb) from 1954 until 1989 as general secretary of the bulgarian communist party. he is the youngest and second longest-serving leader in the eastern bloc.[1]

    he became first secretary of the bulgarian communist party (bcp) in 1954–general secretary from april 1981–and from 1978 concurrently as president of the republic remained on this position for 35 years, until 1989, thus becoming the second longest-serving leader of any eastern bloc nation after world war ii,[2] and one of the longest ruling non-royal leaders in modern history. his rule marked a period of unprecedented political and economic stability for bulgaria, marked both by complete submission of bulgaria to soviet directives[3] and a desire for expanding ties with the west. his rule remained unchallenged until the deterioration of east–west relations in the 1980s, when a stagnating economic situation, a worsening international image and growing careerism and corruption in the bcp weakened his positions.[4] he resigned on 10 november 1989, under pressure by senior bcp members due to his refusal to recognize problems and deal with public protests.[5] within a month of zhivkov's ouster, communist rule in bulgaria had effectively ended, and within nearly a year the people's republic of bulgaria had formally ceased to exist.

  • early life
  • rise to power
  • policies
  • dissent and human rights violations
  • image
  • fall
  • aftermath and legacy
  • honours and awards
  • references

Todor Zhivkov
Todor Zhivkov.jpg
Official photograph of Todor Zhivkov.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party
(to 4 April 1981 as First Secretary)
In office
4 March 1954 – 10 November 1989
Preceded byValko Chervenkov
Succeeded byPetar Mladenov
1st Chairman of the State Council
(to 12 June 1978 as President)
In office
7 July 1971 – 17 November 1989
Preceded byGeorgi Traykov (as Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly)
Succeeded byZhelyu Zhelev
36th Prime Minister of Bulgaria
In office
19 November 1962 – 7 July 1971
Preceded byAnton Yugov
Succeeded byStanko Todorov
48th Mayor of Sofia
In office
27 May 1949 – 1 November 1949
Preceded by Dobri Radistilov
Succeeded by Ivan Pashov
Personal details
Born
Todor Hristov Zhivkov

(1911-09-07)7 September 1911
Pravets, Kingdom of Bulgaria
Died5 August 1998(1998-08-05) (aged 86)
Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria
NationalityBulgarian
Political partyBulgarian Communist Party (1932–1989)
Bulgarian Socialist Party (1998)
Spouse(s)
Mara Maleeva-Zhivkova
(m. 1936; died 1971)
ChildrenLyudmila (1942–1981)
Vladimir (born 1952)
Signature

Todor Khristov Zhivkov (Bulgarian: Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was a Bulgarian communist statesman who served as the de facto leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 1954 until 1989 as General Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party. He is the youngest and second longest-serving leader in the Eastern Bloc.[1]

He became First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) in 1954–General Secretary from April 1981–and from 1978 concurrently as President of the Republic remained on this position for 35 years, until 1989, thus becoming the second longest-serving leader of any Eastern Bloc nation after World War II,[2] and one of the longest ruling non-royal leaders in modern history. His rule marked a period of unprecedented political and economic stability for Bulgaria, marked both by complete submission of Bulgaria to Soviet directives[3] and a desire for expanding ties with the West. His rule remained unchallenged until the deterioration of east–west relations in the 1980s, when a stagnating economic situation, a worsening international image and growing careerism and corruption in the BCP weakened his positions.[4] He resigned on 10 November 1989, under pressure by senior BCP members due to his refusal to recognize problems and deal with public protests.[5] Within a month of Zhivkov's ouster, Communist rule in Bulgaria had effectively ended, and within nearly a year the People's Republic of Bulgaria had formally ceased to exist.