Switzerland

  • swiss confederation

    flag of switzerland
    flag
    coat of arms of switzerland
    coat of arms
    motto: (traditional)
    "unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno" (latin)
    "one for all, all for one"
    anthem: "swiss psalm"
    location of switzerland (green) in europe (green and dark grey)
    location of switzerland (green)

    in europe (green and dark grey)

    capitalnone (de jure)
    bern (de facto)[note 1][1][2]
    46°57′n 7°27′e / 46°57′n 7°27′e / 46.950; 7.450
    largest cityzürich
    official languagesgerman
    french
    italian
    romansh
    religion
    • 35.9% catholic
    • 23.8% protestant
    • 5.9% other christians
    • 5.4% muslim
    • 0.3% jewish
    • 2.8% other
    • 26% none[3]
    demonym(s)english: swiss,
    german: schweizer(in),
    french: suisse(sse),
    italian: svizzero/svizzera, or elvetico/elvetica,
    romansh: svizzer/svizra
    governmentfederal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party parliamentary directorial republic
    • federal council
    • simonetta sommaruga (president)
    • guy parmelin (vice president)
    • alain berset
    • ueli maurer
    • ignazio cassis
    • viola amherd
    • karin keller-sutter
    • federal chancellor
    walter thurnherr
    legislaturefederal assembly
    • upper house
    council of states
    • lower house
    national council
    history
    • foundation date
    c. 1300[note 2] (traditionally 1 august 1291)
    • peace of westphalia
    24 october 1648
    • restoration
    7 august 1815
    • federal state
    12 september 1848[note 3][4]
    area
    • total
    41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (132nd)
    • water (%)
    4.2
    population
    • 2019 estimate
    increase 8,570,146[5] (99th)
    • 2015 census
    8,327,126[6]
    • density
    207/km2 (536.1/sq mi) (48th)
    gdp (ppp)2018 estimate
    • total
    $548 billion[7] (38th)
    • per capita
    $64,649[7] (9th)
    gdp (nominal)2018 estimate
    • total
    $704 billion[7] (20th)
    • per capita
    $82,950[7] (2nd)
    gini (2018)positive decrease 29.7[8]
    low · 19th
    hdi (2018)increase 0.946[9]
    very high · 2nd
    currencyswiss franc (chf)
    time zoneutc+1 (cet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+2 (cest)
    date formatdd.mm.yyyy (ad)
    driving sideright
    calling code+41
    iso 3166 codech
    internet tld.ch, .swiss

    switzerland, officially the swiss confederation, is a country situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern europe.[10][note 4] it is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in bern.[1][2][note 1] switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by italy to the south, france to the west, germany to the north, and austria and liechtenstein to the east. it is geographically divided among the swiss plateau, the alps, and the jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). while the alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are located, among them the two global cities and economic centres of zürich and geneva.

    the establishment of the old swiss confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against austria and burgundy. swiss independence from the holy roman empire was formally recognized in the peace of westphalia in 1648. the federal charter of 1291 is considered the founding document of switzerland which is celebrated on swiss national day. since the reformation of the 16th century, switzerland has maintained a strong policy of armed neutrality; it has not fought an international war since 1815 and did not join the united nations until 2002. nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world.[11] switzerland is the birthplace of the red cross, one of the world's oldest and best known humanitarian organisations, and is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest un office. it is a founding member of the european free trade association, but notably not part of the european union, the european economic area or the eurozone. however, it participates in the schengen area and the european single market through bilateral treaties.

    switzerland occupies the crossroads of germanic and romance europe, as reflected in its four main linguistic and cultural regions: german, french, italian and romansh. although the majority of the population are german-speaking, swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy,[12] and alpine symbolism.[13][14] due to its linguistic diversity, switzerland is known by a variety of native names: schweiz [ˈʃvaɪts] (german);[note 5] suisse [sɥis(ə)] (french); svizzera [ˈzvittsera] (italian); and svizra [ˈʒviːtsrɐ, ˈʒviːtsʁɐ] (romansh).[note 6] on coins and stamps, the latin name, confoederatio helvetica – frequently shortened to "helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.

    the sovereign state is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult[15] and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product.[16][17] it ranks at or near the top in several international metrics, including economic competitiveness and human development. zürich, geneva and basel have been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with zürich ranked second globally.[18] in 2019, imd placed switzerland first in the world in attracting skilled workers.[19] world economic forum ranks it the 5th most competitive country globally.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • politics
  • economy and labour law
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes and references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Swiss Confederation

Motto: (traditional)
"Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno" (Latin)
"One for all, all for one"
Anthem: "Swiss Psalm"
Location of Switzerland (green) in Europe (green and dark grey)
Location of Switzerland (green)

in Europe (green and dark grey)

CapitalNone (de jure)
Bern (de facto)[note 1][1][2]
46°57′N 7°27′E / 46°57′N 7°27′E / 46.950; 7.450
Largest cityZürich
Official languagesGerman
French
Italian
Romansh
Religion
Demonym(s)English: Swiss,
German: Schweizer(in),
French: Suisse(sse),
Italian: svizzero/svizzera, or elvetico/elvetica,
Romansh: Svizzer/Svizra
GovernmentFederal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party parliamentary directorial republic
Walter Thurnherr
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Council of States
National Council
History
c. 1300[note 2] (traditionally 1 August 1291)
24 October 1648
7 August 1815
12 September 1848[note 3][4]
Area
• Total
41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (132nd)
• Water (%)
4.2
Population
• 2019 estimate
Increase 8,570,146[5] (99th)
• 2015 census
8,327,126[6]
• Density
207/km2 (536.1/sq mi) (48th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$548 billion[7] (38th)
• Per capita
$64,649[7] (9th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$704 billion[7] (20th)
• Per capita
$82,950[7] (2nd)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 29.7[8]
low · 19th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.946[9]
very high · 2nd
CurrencySwiss franc (CHF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+41
ISO 3166 codeCH
Internet TLD.ch, .swiss

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in the confluence of Western, Central, and Southern Europe.[10][note 4] It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern.[1][2][note 1] Switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided among the Swiss Plateau, the Alps, and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are located, among them the two global cities and economic centres of Zürich and Geneva.

The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Federal Charter of 1291 is considered the founding document of Switzerland which is celebrated on Swiss National Day. Since the Reformation of the 16th century, Switzerland has maintained a strong policy of armed neutrality; it has not fought an international war since 1815 and did not join the United Nations until 2002. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world.[11] Switzerland is the birthplace of the Red Cross, one of the world's oldest and best known humanitarian organisations, and is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. It is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties.

Switzerland occupies the crossroads of Germanic and Romance Europe, as reflected in its four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy,[12] and Alpine symbolism.[13][14] Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz [ˈʃvaɪts] (German);[note 5] Suisse [sɥis(ə)] (French); Svizzera [ˈzvittsera] (Italian); and Svizra [ˈʒviːtsrɐ, ˈʒviːtsʁɐ] (Romansh).[note 6] On coins and stamps, the Latin name, Confoederatio Helvetica – frequently shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.

The sovereign state is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult[15] and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product.[16][17] It ranks at or near the top in several international metrics, including economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich, Geneva and Basel have been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with Zürich ranked second globally.[18] In 2019, IMD placed Switzerland first in the world in attracting skilled workers.[19] World Economic Forum ranks it the 5th most competitive country globally.