Socialist Republic of Romania

  • romanian people's republic
    (1947–1965)
    republica populară romînă  (romanian)
    socialist republic of romania
    (1965–1989)
    republica socialistă românia  (romanian)
    1947–1989
    flag of romania
    (1965–1989)
    emblem (1965–1989) of romania
    (1965–1989)
    motto: proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă!
    (english: proletarians of all countries, unite!)
    anthem: zdrobite cătușe (1947–1953)
    te slăvim, românie (1953–1977)
    trei culori (1977–1989)
    location of romania
    statusmember of the warsaw pact (1955–1989)
    capital
    and largest city
    bucharest
    official languagesromanian
    recognized languageshungarian, russian, ukrainian
    demonym(s)romanian
    governmentunitary marxist-leninist one-party socialist republic under a totalitarian regime[1][2][3]
    general secretary 
    • 1945–1965
    gheorghe gheorghiu-dej
    • 1965–1989
    nicolae ceaușescu
    head of state 
    • 1947–1952 (first)
    constantin parhon
    • 1967–1989 (last)
    nicolae ceaușescu
    president of the council of ministers 
    • 1947–1952 (first)
    petru groza
    • 1982–1989 (last)
    constantin dăscălescu
    legislaturegreat national assembly
    historical era20th century
    • forced abdication of michael i
    30 december 1947
    • new constitution adopted
    13 april 1948
    • new constitution adopted
    24 september 1952
    • new constitution adopted
    21 august 1965
    • fall of ceaușescu
    22 december 1989
    area
    1987238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)
    population
    • 1987
    23,102,000
    currencyleu
    calling code40
    iso 3166 codero
    preceded by
    succeeded by
    kingdom of romania
    romania
    today part ofromania
    ^a started 1971.
    the administrative divisions of the country were județe from 1947 to 1950, rayons from 1950 to 1968 and județe from 1968 to 1989.
    ^b from 1965
    ^c
    formerly:
    romanian people's republic
    republica populară romînă
    (1947–1965)

    the socialist republic of romania (romanian: republica socialistă românia, rsr) refers to romania under marxist-leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989. from 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the romanian people's republic (republica populară romînă, rpr). the country was a soviet-aligned eastern bloc state with a dominant role for the romanian communist party enshrined in its constitutions.

    as world war ii ended, romania, a former axis member, was occupied by the soviet union, the sole representative of the allies. on 6 march 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the soviet representative of the allied control commission, a new pro-soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed romanian workers' party was installed. gradually, more members of the workers' party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. in december 1947, king michael was coerced to abdicate and the people's republic of romania was declared.

    at first, romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "sovroms", new tax-exempt soviet-romanian companies that allowed the soviet union to control romania's major sources of income.[4] another drain was the war reparations paid to the soviet union. in the 1950s, however, romania's communist government began to assert more independence, inducing, for example, the withdrawal of all soviet troops from romania by 1958.[5]

    in the 1960s and 1970s, nicolae ceaușescu became general secretary of the communist party (1965), chairman of the state council (1967) and assumed the newly established role of president in 1974. ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 soviet invasion of czechoslovakia and a brief relaxation in internal repression helped give him a positive image both at home and in the west. however, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in december 1989.[1][2][3]

    many people were executed or died in custody during communist romania's existence, most during the stalinist era of the 1950s. while judicial executions between 1945 and 1964 numbered 137,[6] deaths in custody are estimated in the tens[7] or hundreds of thousands.[8][9] many more were arrested for political, economical or other reasons and suffered imprisonment, torture and/or death.

    geographically, romania bordered the black sea to the east; the soviet union (via the ukrainian and moldavian ssrs) to the north and east; hungary and yugoslavia to the west and bulgaria to the south.

  • history
  • politics
  • legacy
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Romanian People's Republic
(1947–1965)
Republica Populară Romînă  (Romanian)
Socialist Republic of Romania
(1965–1989)
Republica Socialistă România  (Romanian)
1947–1989
Motto: Proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă!
(English: Proletarians of all countries, unite!)
Anthem: Zdrobite cătușe (1947–1953)
Te slăvim, Românie (1953–1977)
Trei culori (1977–1989)
Location of Romania
StatusMember of the Warsaw Pact (1955–1989)
Capital
and largest city
Bucharest
Official languagesRomanian
Recognized languagesHungarian, Russian, Ukrainian
Demonym(s)Romanian
GovernmentUnitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic under a totalitarian regime[1][2][3]
General Secretary 
• 1945–1965
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
• 1965–1989
Nicolae Ceaușescu
Head of state 
• 1947–1952 (first)
Constantin Parhon
• 1967–1989 (last)
Nicolae Ceaușescu
President of the Council of Ministers 
• 1947–1952 (first)
Petru Groza
• 1982–1989 (last)
Constantin Dăscălescu
LegislatureGreat National Assembly
Historical era20th Century
30 December 1947
13 April 1948
24 September 1952
21 August 1965
22 December 1989
Area
1987238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)
Population
• 1987
23,102,000
CurrencyLeu
Calling code40
ISO 3166 codeRO
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Romania
Romania
Today part ofRomania
^a Started 1971.
The administrative divisions of the country were județe from 1947 to 1950, rayons from 1950 to 1968 and județe from 1968 to 1989.
^b From 1965
^c
Formerly:
Romanian People's Republic
Republica Populară Romînă
(1947–1965)

The Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian: Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic (Republica Populară Romînă, RPR). The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions.

As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies. On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the Allied Control Commission, a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed Romanian Workers' Party was installed. Gradually, more members of the Workers' Party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. In December 1947, King Michael was coerced to abdicate and the People's Republic of Romania was declared.

At first, Romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "SovRoms", new tax-exempt Soviet-Romanian companies that allowed the Soviet Union to control Romania's major sources of income.[4] Another drain was the war reparations paid to the Soviet Union. In the 1950s, however, Romania's communist government began to assert more independence, inducing, for example, the withdrawal of all Soviet troops from Romania by 1958.[5]

In the 1960s and 1970s, Nicolae Ceaușescu became General Secretary of the Communist Party (1965), Chairman of the State Council (1967) and assumed the newly established role of President in 1974. Ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and a brief relaxation in internal repression helped give him a positive image both at home and in the West. However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.[1][2][3]

Many people were executed or died in custody during communist Romania's existence, most during the Stalinist era of the 1950s. While judicial executions between 1945 and 1964 numbered 137,[6] deaths in custody are estimated in the tens[7] or hundreds of thousands.[8][9] Many more were arrested for political, economical or other reasons and suffered imprisonment, torture and/or death.

Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.