Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

  • federal people's republic of yugoslavia
    (1945–1963)
    federativna narodna republika jugoslavija[a]
    Федеративна Народна Република Југославија[b]
    federativna ljudska republika jugoslavija[c]

    socialist federal republic of yugoslavia
    (1963–1992)

    socijalistička federativna republika jugoslavija[a]
    Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија[b]
    socialistična federativna republika jugoslavija[c]
    1945–1992
    flag of yugoslavia
    flag
    emblem of yugoslavia
    emblem
    motto: bratstvo i jedinstvo
    Братство и јединство
    "brotherhood and unity"
    anthem: "hej, slaveni"
    Хеј, Словени
    "hey, slavs"

    map of europe in 1989, showing yugoslavia highlighted in green
    map of europe in 1989, showing yugoslavia highlighted in green
    capital
    and largest city
    belgrade
    official languagesnone at federal level
    recognised national languagesserbo-croatian[d]
    slovene[e]
    macedonian[f]
    official scriptcyrillic  • latin
    ethnic groups
    (1981)
    • serbs (36.3%)
    • croats (19.7%)
    • muslims (8.9%)
    • slovenes (7.8%)
    • albanians (7.7%)
    • macedonians (6.0%)
    • yugoslavs (5.4%)
    • montenegrins (2.6%)
    • hungarians (1.9%)
    • others (3.9%)[1]
    demonym(s)yugoslav
    yugoslavian
    governmentfederal marxist–leninist one-party socialist republic (1945–1948)
    federal titoist one-party socialist republic (1948–1990)
    federal parliamentary socialist republic (1990–1992)
    president 
    • 1945–1953 (first)
    ivan ribar
    • 1953–1980
    josip broz tito
    • 1991 (last)
    stjepan mesić
    prime minister 
    • 1945–1963 (first)
    josip broz tito
    • 1989–1991 (last)
    ante marković
    general secretary 
    • 1945–1980 (first)
    josip broz tito
    • 1989–1990 (last)
    milan pančevski
    legislaturefederal assembly
    • upper house
    chamber of republics
    • lower house
    federal chamber
    historical eracold war
    • avnoj
    26 november 1942
    • proclamation
    29 november 1945
    • constitution adopted
    31 january 1946
    • tito–stalin split
    1948
    • death of josip broz tito
    4 may 1980
    • disintegration
    27 april 1992
    area
    • total
    255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
    population
    • 1991 estimate
    23,229,846
    hdi (1990)steady 0.913[2]
    very high
    currencyyugoslav dinar (yud)
    time zoneutc+1 (central european time (cet))
    • summer (dst)
    utc+2 (cest)
    driving sideright
    calling code38
    internet tld.yu
    preceded by
    succeeded by
    democratic federal yugoslavia
    free territory of trieste
    croatia
    slovenia
    macedonia
    bosnia and herzegovina
    federal republic of yugoslavia
    today part ofbosnia and herzegovina
    croatia
    montenegro
    north macedonia
    serbia
    slovenia
    kosovo
    1. ^ full name in the serbo-croatian and macedonian languages, written in the latin alphabet (see name section for details).
    2. ^ full name in serbo-croatian and macedonian, written in cyrillic.
    3. ^ full name in the slovene language (slovene uses latin only).
    4. ^ there was no de jure official language at the federal level,[3][4][5] but serbo-croatian was de facto official and the only language spoken and taught throughout the country. however, it was the official language in the federal republics of serbia, croatia, bosnia and herzegovina, and montenegro.[3][4]
    5. ^ official in slovenia.
    6. ^ official in macedonia.

    the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia (sfry), also known as sfr yugoslavia or simply yugoslavia, was a country located in central and southeastern europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of world war ii until its dissolution in 1992 amid the yugoslav wars. covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the sfry was bordered by the adriatic sea and italy to the west, austria and hungary to the north, bulgaria and romania to the east, and albania and greece to the south. the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the league of communists of yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republicsbosnia and herzegovina, croatia, macedonia, montenegro, serbia, and slovenia – with belgrade as its capital. in addition, it included two autonomous provinces within serbia: kosovo and vojvodina. the sfry's origin is traced to 26 november 1942, when the anti-fascist council for the national liberation of yugoslavia was formed during world war ii.

    on 29 november 1945, the federal people's republic of yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of king peter ii, thus ending the monarchy. until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the eastern bloc under the leadership of josip broz tito at the beginning of the cold war, but after the tito–stalin split of 1948, yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. it became one of the founding members of the non-aligned movement, and transitioned from a command economy to market-based socialism. the sfry maintained neutrality during the cold war as part of its foreign policy. it was a founding member of cern, the united nations, non-aligned movement, osce, ifad, wto, eutelsat, and btwc. following the death of tito on 4 may 1980, the yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment[6] and inflation.[7] the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s and early 1990s; dissidence resulted among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics.

    with the collapse of communism in eastern europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederacy also failed, with the two wealthiest republics (croatia and slovenia) seceding. in 1991 some european states recognized their independence. the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the yugoslav wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 april 1992. two of its republics, serbia and montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "federal republic of yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the sfry. the term former yugoslavia is now commonly used retrospectively.

  • name
  • history
  • politics
  • economy
  • transportation
  • communications
  • geography
  • demographics
  • military
  • education
  • arts
  • sports
  • national anthem
  • legacy
  • notes and references
  • sources
  • external links

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(1945–1963)
Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija[a]
Федеративна Народна Република Југославија[b]
Federativna ljudska republika Jugoslavija[c]

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1963–1992)

Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija[a]
Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија[b]
Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija[c]
1945–1992
Motto: Bratstvo i jedinstvo
Братство и јединство
"Brotherhood and unity"
Anthem: "Hej, Slaveni"
Хеј, Словени
"Hey, Slavs"

Map of Europe in 1989, showing Yugoslavia highlighted in green
Map of Europe in 1989, showing Yugoslavia highlighted in green
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
Official languagesNone at federal level
Recognised national languagesSerbo-Croatian[d]
Slovene[e]
Macedonian[f]
Official scriptCyrillic  • Latin
Ethnic groups
(1981)
Demonym(s)Yugoslav
Yugoslavian
GovernmentFederal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic (1945–1948)
Federal Titoist one-party socialist republic (1948–1990)
Federal parliamentary socialist republic (1990–1992)
President 
• 1945–1953 (first)
Ivan Ribar
• 1953–1980
Josip Broz Tito
• 1991 (last)
Stjepan Mesić
Prime Minister 
• 1945–1963 (first)
Josip Broz Tito
• 1989–1991 (last)
Ante Marković
General Secretary 
• 1945–1980 (first)
Josip Broz Tito
• 1989–1990 (last)
Milan Pančevski
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Chamber of Republics
Federal Chamber
Historical eraCold War
• AVNOJ
26 November 1942
29 November 1945
31 January 1946
1948
4 May 1980
27 April 1992
Area
• Total
255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
Population
• 1991 estimate
23,229,846
HDI (1990)Steady 0.913[2]
very high
CurrencyYugoslav dinar (YUD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time (CET))
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code38
Internet TLD.yu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
Free Territory of Trieste
Croatia
Slovenia
Macedonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Today part ofBosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
Montenegro
North Macedonia
Serbia
Slovenia
Kosovo
  1. ^ Full name in the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages, written in the Latin alphabet (see Name section for details).
  2. ^ Full name in Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, written in Cyrillic.
  3. ^ Full name in the Slovene language (Slovene uses Latin only).
  4. ^ There was no de jure official language at the federal level,[3][4][5] but Serbo-Croatian was de facto official and the only language spoken and taught throughout the country. However, it was the official language in the federal republics of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.[3][4]
  5. ^ Official in Slovenia.
  6. ^ Official in Macedonia.

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), also known as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south. The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republicsBosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia – with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina. The SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II.

On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy. Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and transitioned from a command economy to market-based socialism. The SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat, and BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment[6] and inflation.[7] The economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s and early 1990s; dissidence resulted among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics.

With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederacy also failed, with the two wealthiest republics (Croatia and Slovenia) seceding. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence. The federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. Two of its republics, Serbia and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term former Yugoslavia is now commonly used retrospectively.