this article is about the form of yugoslavia from 1945 to 1992. for the country as a whole, see yugoslavia.
not to be confused with federal republic of yugoslavia.
"former yugoslavia" redirects here. for modern countries, see serbia and montenegro.
socialist republic in southeast europe between 1943 and 1992
federal people's republic of yugoslavia (1945–1963) federativna narodna republika jugoslavija[a] Федеративна Народна Република Југославија[b] federativna ljudska republika jugoslavija[c]
socialist federal republic of yugoslavia (1963–1992)
socijalistička federativna republika jugoslavija[a] Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија[b] socialistična federativna republika jugoslavija[c]
motto: bratstvo i jedinstvo Братство и јединство "brotherhood and unity"
anthem: "hej, slaveni" Хеј, Словени "hey, slavs"
map of europe in 1989, showing yugoslavia highlighted in green
bosnia and herzegovina croatia montenegro north macedonia serbia slovenia kosovo
^ full name in the serbo-croatian and macedonian languages, written in the latin alphabet (see name section for details).
^ full name in serbo-croatian and macedonian, written in cyrillic.
^ full name in the slovene language (slovene uses latin only).
^ there was no de jure official language at the federal level, but serbo-croatian was de facto official and the only language spoken and taught throughout the country. however, it was the official language in the federal republics of serbia, croatia, bosnia and herzegovina, and montenegro.
^ official in slovenia.
^ official in macedonia.
the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia (sfry), also known as sfr yugoslavia or simply yugoslavia, was a country located in central and southeastern europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of world war ii until its dissolution in 1992 amid the yugoslav wars. covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the sfry was bordered by the adriatic sea and italy to the west, austria and hungary to the north, bulgaria and romania to the east, and albania and greece to the south. the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the league of communists of yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics – bosnia and herzegovina, croatia, macedonia, montenegro, serbia, and slovenia – with belgrade as its capital. in addition, it included two autonomous provinces within serbia: kosovo and vojvodina. the sfry's origin is traced to 26 november 1942, when the anti-fascist council for the national liberation of yugoslavia was formed during world war ii.
on 29 november 1945, the federal people's republic of yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of king peter ii, thus ending the monarchy. until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the eastern bloc under the leadership of josip broz tito at the beginning of the cold war, but after the tito–stalin split of 1948, yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. it became one of the founding members of the non-aligned movement, and transitioned from a command economy to market-based socialism. the sfry maintained neutrality during the cold war as part of its foreign policy. it was a founding member of cern, the united nations, non-aligned movement, osce, ifad, wto, eutelsat, and btwc. following the death of tito on 4 may 1980, the yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation. the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s and early 1990s; dissidence resulted among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics.
with the collapse of communism in eastern europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederacy also failed, with the two wealthiest republics (croatia and slovenia) seceding. in 1991 some european states recognized their independence. the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the yugoslav wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 april 1992. two of its republics, serbia and montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "federal republic of yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the sfry. the term former yugoslavia is now commonly used retrospectively.
Socialist republic in Southeast Europe between 1943 and 1992
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1963) Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija[a] Федеративна Народна Република Југославија[b] Federativna ljudska republika Jugoslavija[c]
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992)
Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija[a] Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија[b] Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija[c]