Sanskrit

  • sanskrit
    संस्कृत
    saṃskṛta
    the word संस्कृत (sanskrit) in sanskrit.jpg
    saṃskṛta in devanagari script
    pronunciation[ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐ] (about this soundlisten)
    regionsouth asia
    parts of southeast asia
    erac. 2nd millennium bce – 600 bce (vedic sanskrit);[1]
    600 bce – present (classical sanskrit)
    revival24,821 people in india[2] and 1,669 people in nepal[3] have registered sanskrit as their mother tongue. there are 2,360,821 total speakers of sanskrit in india.[4]
    language family
    indo-european
    • indo-iranian
      • indo-aryan
        • sanskrit
    early form
    vedic sanskrit
    writing system
    devanagari,
    also written in various other brahmic scripts[5]
    language codes
    sa
    san
    iso 639-3san
    sans1269[6]

    sanskrit (english: t/;[7] sanskrit: संस्कृत, romanizedsaṃskṛta, ipa: [ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐ] (about this soundlisten)) is a language of ancient india with a 3,500-year history.[8][9][10] it is the primary liturgical language of hinduism and the predominant language of most works of hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of buddhism and jainism. sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval india.[11][12][13] in the early 1st millennium ce, along with buddhism and hinduism, sanskrit migrated to southeast asia,[14] parts of east asia[15] and central asia,[16] emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.[17][18]

    sanskrit is an old indo-aryan language.[8] as one of the oldest documented members of the indo-european family of languages,[19][note 1][note 2] sanskrit holds a prominent position in indo-european studies.[22] it is related to greek and latin,[8] as well as hittite, luwian, old avestan and many other living and extinct languages with historical significance to europe, west asia, central asia and south asia. it traces its linguistic ancestry to the proto-indo-aryan language, proto-indo-iranian and the proto-indo-european languages.[23]

    sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium bce in a form known as vedic sanskrit, with the rigveda as the earliest-known composition. a more refined and standardized grammatical form called classical sanskrit emerged in the mid-1st millennium bce with the aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of pāṇini.[8] sanskrit, though not necessarily classical sanskrit, is the root language of many prakrit languages.[24] examples include numerous, modern, north indian, subcontinental daughter languages such as hindi, marathi, bengali, punjabi, gujarati, sindhi, kashmiri, kumaoni, garhwali, urdu, dogri, maithili, konkani, assamese, odia, and nepali.[25][26][27]

    the body of sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, music, drama, scientific, technical and other texts. in the ancient era, sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity, rigour and fidelity.[28][29] the earliest known inscriptions in sanskrit are from the 1st century bce, such as the few discovered in ayodhya and ghosundi-hathibada (chittorgarh).[30][note 3] sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium ce were written in the brahmi script, the nāgarī script, the historic south indian scripts and their derivative scripts.[34][35][36] sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the eighth schedule of the constitution of india. it continues to be widely used as a ceremonial and ritual language in hinduism and some buddhist practices such as hymns and chants.

  • etymology and nomenclature
  • history
  • influence
  • geographic distribution
  • phonology
  • morphology
  • writing system
  • influence on other languages
  • modern era
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Sanskrit
संस्कृत
Saṃskṛta
The word संस्कृत (Sanskrit) in Sanskrit.jpg
Saṃskṛta in Devanagari script
Pronunciation[ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐ] (About this soundlisten)
RegionSouth Asia
Parts of Southeast Asia
Erac. 2nd millennium BCE – 600 BCE (Vedic Sanskrit);[1]
600 BCE – present (Classical Sanskrit)
Revival24,821 people in India[2] and 1,669 people in Nepal[3] have registered Sanskrit as their mother tongue. There are 2,360,821 total speakers of Sanskrit in India.[4]
Early form
Devanagari,
also written in various other Brahmic scripts[5]
Language codes
sa
san
ISO 639-3san
sans1269[6]

Sanskrit (English: t/;[7] Sanskrit: संस्कृत, romanizedsaṃskṛta, IPA: [ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐ] (About this soundlisten)) is a language of ancient India with a 3,500-year history.[8][9][10] It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India.[11][12][13] In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia,[14] parts of East Asia[15] and Central Asia,[16] emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.[17][18]

Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language.[8] As one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages,[19][note 1][note 2] Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.[22] It is related to Greek and Latin,[8] as well as Hittite, Luwian, Old Avestan and many other living and extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. It traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.[23]

Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest-known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called Classical Sanskrit emerged in the mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini.[8] Sanskrit, though not necessarily Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages.[24] Examples include numerous, modern, North Indian, subcontinental daughter languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Kumaoni, Garhwali, Urdu, Dogri, Maithili, Konkani, Assamese, Odia, and Nepali.[25][26][27]

The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, music, drama, scientific, technical and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity, rigour and fidelity.[28][29] The earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada (Chittorgarh).[30][note 3] Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.[34][35][36] Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be widely used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants.