Queen Victoria

  • victoria
    photograph of queen victoria, 1882
    photograph by alexander bassano, 1882
    queen of the united kingdom
    (more...)
    reign20 june 1837 – 22 january 1901
    coronation28 june 1838
    predecessorwilliam iv
    successoredward vii
    empress of india
    reign1 may 1876 – 22 january 1901
    imperial durbar1 january 1877
    successoredward vii
    bornprincess alexandrina victoria of kent
    (1819-05-24)24 may 1819
    kensington palace, london
    died22 january 1901(1901-01-22) (aged 81)
    osborne house, isle of wight
    burial4 february 1901
    frogmore mausoleum, windsor
    spouse
    prince albert of saxe-coburg and gotha
    (m. 1840; died 1861)
    issue
    detail
    • victoria, german empress
    • edward vii
    • alice, grand duchess of hesse
    • alfred, duke of saxe-coburg and gotha
    • helena, princess christian of schleswig-holstein
    • princess louise, duchess of argyll
    • prince arthur, duke of connaught and strathearn
    • prince leopold, duke of albany
    • beatrice, princess henry of battenberg
    full name
    alexandrina victoria
    househanover
    fatherprince edward, duke of kent and strathearn
    motherprincess victoria of saxe-coburg-saalfeld
    religionprotestant
    signaturevictoria's signature

    victoria (alexandrina victoria; 24 may 1819 – 22 january 1901) was queen of the united kingdom of great britain and ireland from 20 june 1837 until her death. on 1 may 1876, she adopted the additional title of empress of india. known as the victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. it was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the united kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the british empire.

    victoria was the daughter of prince edward, duke of kent and strathearn (the fourth son of king george iii), and princess victoria of saxe-coburg-saalfeld. after both the duke and his father died in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, john conroy. she inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. the united kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

    victoria married her cousin prince albert of saxe-coburg and gotha in 1840. their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of europe" and spreading haemophilia in european royalty. after albert's death in 1861, victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. as a result of her seclusion, republicanism in the united kingdom temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. her golden and diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. she died on the isle of wight in 1901. the last british monarch of the house of hanover, she was succeeded by her son edward vii of the house of saxe-coburg and gotha.

  • birth and family
  • heir presumptive
  • early reign
  • marriage
  • 1842–1860
  • widowhood
  • empress of india
  • later years
  • legacy
  • titles, styles, honours and arms
  • issue
  • ancestry
  • notes and references
  • further reading
  • external links

Victoria
Photograph of Queen Victoria, 1882
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901
Coronation28 June 1838
PredecessorWilliam IV
SuccessorEdward VII
Empress of India
Reign1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar1 January 1877
SuccessorEdward VII
BornPrincess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent
(1819-05-24)24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died22 January 1901(1901-01-22) (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial4 February 1901
Spouse
Issue
Detail
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
HouseHanover
FatherPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
MotherPrincess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
ReligionProtestant
SignatureVictoria's signature

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.

Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After both the Duke and his father died in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism in the United Kingdom temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.