Pinyin

  • pinyin
    chinese拼音
    scheme for the chinese phonetic alphabet
    simplified chinese汉语拼音方案
    traditional chinese漢語拼音方案

    hanyu pinyin (simplified chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: hànyǔ pīnyīn), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for standard chinese in mainland china and to some extent in taiwan. it is often used to teach standard mandarin chinese, which is normally written using chinese characters. the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. pinyin without tone marks is used to spell chinese names and words in languages written with the latin alphabet and also in certain computer input methods to enter chinese characters.

    the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including zhou youguang,[1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of chinese. it was published by the chinese government in 1958 and revised several times.[2] the international organization for standardization (iso) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982,[3] and was followed by the united nations in 1986.[1] the system was adopted as the official standard in taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes.[4][5] but "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that taiwan is more closely tied to the prc", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.[6]

    the word hànyǔ (simplified chinese: 汉语; traditional chinese: 漢語) means 'the spoken language of the han people', while pīnyīn (拼音) literally means 'spelled sounds'.[7]

    in yiling, yichang, hubei, text on road signs appears both in chinese characters and in hanyu pinyin

    when a foreign writing system with one set of coding/decoding system is taken to write a language, certain compromises may have to be made. the result is that the decoding systems used in some foreign languages will enable non-native speakers to produce sounds more closely resembling the target language than will the coding/decoding system used by other foreign languages. native speakers of english will decode pinyin spellings to fairly close approximations of mandarin except in the case of certain speech sounds that are not ordinarily produced by most native speakers of english: j [tɕ], q [tɕʰ], x [ɕ], z [ts], c [tsʰ], zh [ʈʂ], ch [ʈʂʰ], sh [ʂ], h [x], and r [ɻ] exhibiting the greatest discrepancies.

    in this system, the correspondence between the roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncratic, though not necessarily more so than the way the latin script is employed in other languages. for example, the aspiration distinction between b, d, g and p, t, k is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants english (in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicing), but not to that of french. letters z and c also have that distinction, pronounced as [ts] and [tsʰ] (whilst reminiscent of both of them being used for the phoneme /ts/ in the german language and latin script-using slavic languages respectively). from s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with english sh, ch. although this introduces the novel combination zh, it is internally consistent in how the two series are related, and reminds the trained reader that many chinese people pronounce sh, zh, ch as s, z, c (and english-speakers use zh to represent /ʒ/ in foreign languages such as russian anyway). in the x, j, q series, the pinyin use of x is similar to its use in portuguese, galician, catalan, basque, and maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in albanian; both pinyin and albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear. pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in romance languages.

    the pronunciation and spelling of chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finals, which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter. initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials (semivowels coming before the vowel), a nucleus vowel, and coda (final vowel or consonant).

  • history
  • initials and finals
  • tones
  • orthographic rules
  • comparison with other orthographies
  • usage
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Pinyin
Chinese拼音
Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet
Simplified Chinese汉语拼音方案
Traditional Chinese漢語拼音方案

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times.[2] The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982,[3] and was followed by the United Nations in 1986.[1] The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes.[4][5] But "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.[6]

The word Hànyǔ (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語) means 'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn (拼音) literally means 'spelled sounds'.[7]

In Yiling, Yichang, Hubei, text on road signs appears both in Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin

When a foreign writing system with one set of coding/decoding system is taken to write a language, certain compromises may have to be made. The result is that the decoding systems used in some foreign languages will enable non-native speakers to produce sounds more closely resembling the target language than will the coding/decoding system used by other foreign languages. Native speakers of English will decode pinyin spellings to fairly close approximations of Mandarin except in the case of certain speech sounds that are not ordinarily produced by most native speakers of English: j [tɕ], q [tɕʰ], x [ɕ], z [ts], c [tsʰ], zh [ʈʂ], ch [ʈʂʰ], sh [ʂ], h [x], and r [ɻ] exhibiting the greatest discrepancies.

In this system, the correspondence between the Roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncratic, though not necessarily more so than the way the Latin script is employed in other languages. For example, the aspiration distinction between b, d, g and p, t, k is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants English (in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicing), but not to that of French. Letters z and c also have that distinction, pronounced as [ts] and [tsʰ] (whilst reminiscent of both of them being used for the phoneme /ts/ in the German language and Latin script-using Slavic languages respectively). From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh, ch. Although this introduces the novel combination zh, it is internally consistent in how the two series are related, and reminds the trained reader that many Chinese people pronounce sh, zh, ch as s, z, c (and English-speakers use zh to represent /ʒ/ in foreign languages such as Russian anyway). In the x, j, q series, the pinyin use of x is similar to its use in Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Basque, and Maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in Albanian; both pinyin and Albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear. Pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in Romance languages.

The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finals, which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter. Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials (semivowels coming before the vowel), a nucleus vowel, and coda (final vowel or consonant).