Philippine–American War

  • philippine–american war
    digmaang pilipino-amerikano
    manila646 1899.jpg gregorio del pilar and his troops, around 1898.jpg battle of quingua.jpg americans guarding pasig river bridge, 1898.jpg malolos filipino army.jpg leadingthetroops-santacruz-0.jpg
    clockwise from top left: u.s. troops in manila, gregorio del pilar and his troops around 1898, americans guarding pasig river bridge in 1898, the battle of santa cruz, filipino soldiers at malolos, the battle of quingua
    datefebruary 4, 1899 – july 2, 1902[1]
    (3 years, 4 months and 4 weeks)
    moro rebellion: 1899–1913
    location
    philippines
    result

    american victory

    • american occupation of the philippines; dissolution of the first philippine republic
    territorial
    changes
    the philippines becomes an unincorporated territory of the united states and, later, a u.s. commonwealth (until 1946).
    belligerents

    1899–1902
     united states

    • military government

    1899–1902
     philippine republic

    • negros republic
    • zamboanga republic
    limited foreign support:
     japan

    1902–1913
     united states

    • insular government

    1902–1906
    tagalog republic


    1899–1913
     sulu sultanate
    commanders and leaders
    • william mckinley
    • theodore roosevelt
    • elwell stephen otis
    • arthur macarthur jr.
    • wesley merritt
    • loyd wheaton
    • thomas m. anderson
    • joseph wheeler
    • john j. pershing
    • jacob h. smith
    • henry lawton 
    • frederick n. funston
    • leonard wood
    • james francis smith
    • adna chaffee
    • j. franklin bell
    • peyton c. march
    • luther hare
    • emilio aguinaldo
    • apolinario mabini
    • hilaria del rosario
    • antonio luna
    • artemio ricarte
    • josé alejandrino
    • miguel malvar
    • gregorio del pilar 
    • manuel tinio
    • pio del pilar
    • juan cailles
    • teresa magbanua
    • macario sakay executed
    • dionisio seguela
    • vicente alvarez
    • jamalul kiram ii
    • datu amil
    • hara tei[2]
    units involved

    1899–1902
    united states army
    united states marine corps
    united states navy
    macabebe scouts


    1902–1913
    philippine scouts
    philippine constabulary

    1899–1902
    philippine republican army
    philippine republican navy
    babaylanes
    pulajanes
    supported by:
    ishin shishi[2]


    1899–1913
    irreconcilables
    moro people
    strength

    ≈126,000 total[3][4]

    ≈24,000 to ≈44,000 field strength[5]
    ≈80,000–100,000
    regular and irregular[5]
    casualties and losses
    4,234[6]–6,165 killed,[7] 2,818 wounded[6] 16,000-20,000 killed[8]
    filipino civilians: 250,000–1,000,000 died, most because of famine and disease;[8] including 200,000 dead from cholera.[9][10][i]
    1. ^ while there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 1,000,000; see "casualties".

    the philippine–american war,[11] also referred to as the filipino–american war, the philippine war, the philippine insurrection or the tagalog insurgency[12][13] (filipino: digmaang pilipino–amerikano; spanish: guerra filipino–estadounidense), was an armed conflict between the first philippine republic and the united states that lasted from february 4, 1899, to july 2, 1902.[1] while filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the philippine revolution, the u.s. government regarded it as an insurrection.[14] the conflict arose when the first philippine republic objected to the terms of the treaty of paris under which the united states took possession of the philippines from spain, ending the spanish–american war.[15]

    fighting erupted between forces of the united states and those of the philippine republic on february 4, 1899, in what became known as the 1899 battle of manila. on june 2, 1899, the first philippine republic officially declared war against the united states.[16][17] the war officially ended on july 2, 1902, with a victory for the united states. however, some philippine groups—led by veterans of the katipunan, a philippine revolutionary society—continued to battle the american forces for several more years. among those leaders was general macario sakay, a veteran katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed tagalog republic, formed in 1902 after the capture of president emilio aguinaldo. other groups, including the moro, bicol, and pulahan peoples, continued hostilities in remote areas and islands, until their final defeat at the battle of bud bagsak on june 15, 1913.[18]

    the war resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 filipino civilians, mostly due to famine and disease.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] some estimates for total civilian dead reach up to a million.[27][8] the war, and especially the following occupation by the u.s., changed the culture of the islands, leading to the disestablishment of the catholic church in the philippines as a state religion, and the introduction of english to the islands as the primary language of government, education, business, industry, and, in future decades, among upper-class families and educated individuals.

    in 1902, the united states congress passed the philippine organic act, which provided for the creation of the philippine assembly, with members to be elected by filipino males (women did not have the vote until after the 1937 suffrage plebiscite).[28][29] this act was superseded by the 1916 jones act (philippine autonomy act), which contained the first formal and official declaration of the united states government's commitment to eventually grant independence to the philippines.[30] the 1934 tydings–mcduffie act (philippine independence act) created the commonwealth of the philippines the following year, increasing self-governance in advance of independence, and established a process towards full philippine independence (originally scheduled for 1944, but interrupted and delayed by world war ii). the united states granted independence in 1946, following world war ii and the japanese occupation of the philippines, through the treaty of manila.

  • background
  • conflict origins
  • war
  • campaigns of the philippine–american war
  • political atmosphere
  • aftermath
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Philippine–American War
Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano
Manila646 1899.jpg Gregorio del Pilar and his troops, around 1898.jpg Battle of Quingua.jpg Americans guarding Pasig River bridge, 1898.jpg Malolos Filipino Army.jpg LeadingtheTroops-SantaCruz-0.jpg
Clockwise from top left: U.S. troops in Manila, Gregorio del Pilar and his troops around 1898, Americans guarding Pasig River bridge in 1898, the Battle of Santa Cruz, Filipino soldiers at Malolos, the Battle of Quingua
DateFebruary 4, 1899 – July 2, 1902[1]
(3 years, 4 months and 4 weeks)
Moro Rebellion: 1899–1913
Location
Result

American victory

Territorial
changes
The Philippines becomes an unincorporated territory of the United States and, later, a U.S. Commonwealth (until 1946).
Belligerents

1899–1902
 United States

1899–1902
 Philippine Republic

Limited foreign support:
 Japan

1902–1913
 United States

1902–1906
Tagalog Republic


1899–1913
 Sulu Sultanate
Commanders and leaders
Units involved

1899–1902
United States Army
United States Marine Corps
United States Navy
Macabebe Scouts


1902–1913
Philippine Scouts
Philippine Constabulary

1899–1902
Philippine Republican Army
Philippine Republican Navy
Babaylanes
Pulajanes
Supported by:
Ishin Shishi[2]


1899–1913
Irreconcilables
Moro people
Strength

≈126,000 total[3][4]

≈24,000 to ≈44,000 field strength[5]
≈80,000–100,000
regular and irregular[5]
Casualties and losses
4,234[6]–6,165 killed,[7] 2,818 wounded[6] 16,000-20,000 killed[8]
Filipino civilians: 250,000–1,000,000 died, most because of famine and disease;[8] including 200,000 dead from cholera.[9][10][i]
  1. ^ While there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 1,000,000; see "Casualties".

The Philippine–American War,[11] also referred to as the Filipino–American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency[12][13] (Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino–Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino–Estadounidense), was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.[1] While Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution, the U.S. government regarded it as an insurrection.[14] The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the Spanish–American War.[15]

Fighting erupted between forces of the United States and those of the Philippine Republic on February 4, 1899, in what became known as the 1899 Battle of Manila. On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against the United States.[16][17] The war officially ended on July 2, 1902, with a victory for the United States. However, some Philippine groups—led by veterans of the Katipunan, a Philippine revolutionary society—continued to battle the American forces for several more years. Among those leaders was General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed Tagalog Republic, formed in 1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups, including the Moro, Bicol, and Pulahan peoples, continued hostilities in remote areas and islands, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913.[18]

The war resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 Filipino civilians, mostly due to famine and disease.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Some estimates for total civilian dead reach up to a million.[27][8] The war, and especially the following occupation by the U.S., changed the culture of the islands, leading to the disestablishment of the Catholic Church in the Philippines as a state religion, and the introduction of English to the islands as the primary language of government, education, business, industry, and, in future decades, among upper-class families and educated individuals.

In 1902, the United States Congress passed the Philippine Organic Act, which provided for the creation of the Philippine Assembly, with members to be elected by Filipino males (women did not have the vote until after the 1937 suffrage plebiscite).[28][29] This act was superseded by the 1916 Jones Act (Philippine Autonomy Act), which contained the first formal and official declaration of the United States government's commitment to eventually grant independence to the Philippines.[30] The 1934 Tydings–McDuffie Act (Philippine Independence Act) created the Commonwealth of the Philippines the following year, increasing self-governance in advance of independence, and established a process towards full Philippine independence (originally scheduled for 1944, but interrupted and delayed by World War II). The United States granted independence in 1946, following World War II and the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, through the Treaty of Manila.