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. (march 2016)
|part of the politics series on|
head of state|
- supreme leader
- president of the council of state
- head of government
- chief executive
- chief minister
- first minister
- prime minister
- president of the council of ministers
- president of the government
cabinet collective responsibility
- monarchy (constitutional)
- republic (parliamentary)
- parliamentary (westminster)
- semi-parliamentary (simul simul)
- semi-presidential (cohabitational)
- national governments
- heads of state and government
a ministry is a high governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration. governments may have differing numbers and types of ministries, but the brockhaus and efron encyclopedic dictionary notes that all states have (often under varying names) a ministry of interior, a ministry of foreign affairs, a ministry of defence (which may be divided into ministries for land, naval, and air forces), a ministry of justice, and a ministry of finance. a ministry of education or similar is also commonly present.
ministries are usually immediate subdivisions of the cabinet (the executive branch of the government), and subordinate to its chief executive who is called prime minister, chief minister, president, minister-president, or (federal) chancellor.
during the 20th century, many countries increasingly tended to replace the term "ministry" with titles such as "department", "office", or "state secretariat". in some countries, these terms may be used with specific meanings: for example, an office may be a subdivision of a department or ministry.