Low German

  • low german
    low saxon
    plattdütsch, plattdüütsch, plattdütsk, plattdüütsk, plattduitsk (south-westphalian), plattduitsch (eastphalian), plattdietsch (prussian); neddersassisch; nedderdüütsch german: plattdeutsch, niedersächsisch, niederdeutsch (in a stricter sense)
    dutch: nedersaksisch and danish: plattysk, nedertysk, lavtysk (rarely)
    native tonorthern germany
    western germany
    eastern netherlands
    southern denmark
    ethnicitydutch
    germans (including east frisians);
    historically saxons
    (both the ethnic group and modern regional subgroup of germans)
    native speakers
    estimated 6.7 million[a][1][2]
    up to 10 million second-language speakers (2001)[3]
    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • west germanic
        • ingvaeonic
          • low german
    early forms
    old saxon
    • middle low german
    dialects
    • west low german
    • east low german
    official status
    official language in
     germany[4]
     schleswig-holstein
     hamburg
     lower saxony
     mecklenburg-vorpommern[5]
     brandenburg[6][7]
     netherlands[8]
    recognised minority
    language in
     mexico (100,000)[9]

     bolivia (70,000)[10]

     paraguay (30,000)[11]
    language codes
    nds
    iso 639-3nds (dutch varieties and westphalian have separate codes)
    lowg1239  low german[12]
    linguasphere52-acb
    low saxon dialects.svg
    approximate area in which low german/low saxon dialects are spoken in europe (after the expulsion of germans).
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    low german or low saxon[b] is a west germanic language spoken mainly in northern germany and the northeastern part of the netherlands. it is also spoken to a lesser extent in the german diaspora worldwide (e.g. plautdietsch).

    low german is most closely related to frisian and english, with which it forms the north sea germanic group of the west germanic languages. like dutch, it is spoken north of the benrath and uerdingen isoglosses, while (standard) german is spoken south of those lines. like frisian, english, dutch and the north germanic languages, low german has not undergone the high german consonant shift, as opposed to german, which is based upon high german dialects. low german evolved from old saxon (old low german), which is most closely related to old frisian and old english (anglo-saxon).

    the low german dialects spoken in the netherlands are mostly referred to as low saxon, those spoken in northwestern germany (lower saxony, westphalia, schleswig-holstein, hamburg, bremen, and saxony-anhalt west of the elbe) as either low german or low saxon, and those spoken in northeastern germany (mecklenburg-western pomerania, brandenburg, and saxony-anhalt east of the elbe) mostly as low german. this is because northwestern germany and the northeastern netherlands were the area of settlement of the saxons (old saxony), while low german spread to northeastern germany through eastward migration of low german speakers into areas with a slavic-speaking population (germania slavica).

    it has been estimated that low german has approximately 2–5 million speakers in germany, primarily northern germany,[1] and 1.7 million in the netherlands.[2] a 2005 study by h. bloemhof, taaltelling nedersaksisch, showed 1.8 million spoke it daily to some extent in the netherlands.[13]

  • geographical extent
  • nomenclature
  • classification
  • varieties of low german
  • history
  • sound change
  • grammar
  • phonology
  • writing system
  • notable low german writers and performers
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Low German
Low Saxon
Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattdüütsk, Plattduitsk (South-Westphalian), Plattduitsch (Eastphalian), Plattdietsch (Prussian); Neddersassisch; Nedderdüütsch German: Plattdeutsch, Niedersächsisch, Niederdeutsch (in a stricter sense)
Dutch: Nedersaksisch and Danish: Plattysk, Nedertysk, Lavtysk (rarely)
Native toNorthern Germany
Western Germany
Eastern Netherlands
Southern Denmark
EthnicityDutch
Germans (including East Frisians);
Historically Saxons
(both the ethnic group and modern regional subgroup of Germans)
Native speakers
Estimated 6.7 million[a][1][2]
Up to 10 million second-language speakers (2001)[3]
Early forms
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
 Germany[4]
 Schleswig-Holstein
 Hamburg
 Lower Saxony
 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern[5]
 Brandenburg[6][7]
 Netherlands[8]
Recognised minority
language in
 Mexico (100,000)[9]

 Bolivia (70,000)[10]

 Paraguay (30,000)[11]
Language codes
nds
ISO 639-3nds (Dutch varieties and Westphalian have separate codes)
lowg1239  Low German[12]
Linguasphere52-ACB
Low Saxon Dialects.svg
Approximate area in which Low German/Low Saxon dialects are spoken in Europe (after the expulsion of Germans).
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Low German or Low Saxon[b] is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands. It is also spoken to a lesser extent in the German diaspora worldwide (e.g. Plautdietsch).

Low German is most closely related to Frisian and English, with which it forms the North Sea Germanic group of the West Germanic languages. Like Dutch, it is spoken north of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses, while (Standard) German is spoken south of those lines. Like Frisian, English, Dutch and the North Germanic languages, Low German has not undergone the High German consonant shift, as opposed to German, which is based upon High German dialects. Low German evolved from Old Saxon (Old Low German), which is most closely related to Old Frisian and Old English (Anglo-Saxon).

The Low German dialects spoken in the Netherlands are mostly referred to as Low Saxon, those spoken in northwestern Germany (Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen, and Saxony-Anhalt west of the Elbe) as either Low German or Low Saxon, and those spoken in northeastern Germany (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, and Saxony-Anhalt east of the Elbe) mostly as Low German. This is because northwestern Germany and the northeastern Netherlands were the area of settlement of the Saxons (Old Saxony), while Low German spread to northeastern Germany through eastward migration of Low German speakers into areas with a Slavic-speaking population (Germania Slavica).

It has been estimated that Low German has approximately 2–5 million speakers in Germany, primarily Northern Germany,[1] and 1.7 million in the Netherlands.[2] A 2005 study by H. Bloemhof, Taaltelling Nedersaksisch, showed 1.8 million spoke it daily to some extent in the Netherlands.[13]