List of cities by GDP

This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by Gross domestic product. The methodology may differ between the studies and are widely based on projections and sometimes approximate estimations, notably for cities that are not within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Refer to sources for more information. Click on the headers to reorganize columns.

City/Metropolitan areaCountry/RegionUNSD
sub‑region[1]
Official est.
Nominal
GDP ($BN)
Brookings Institution[2]
2014 est.
PPP-adjusted
GDP ($BN)
PwC[3]
2008 est.
PPP-adjusted
GDP ($BN)
McKinsey[4]
2010 est.
Nominal
GDP ($BN)
Other est.
Nominal
GDP ($BN)
Aachen-Liège-Maastricht Germany Belgium NetherlandsWestern Europe99.7
Aberdeen United KingdomNorthern Europe11.3 (2008)[5]
Abidjan Ivory CoastAfrica13
Abu Dhabi United Arab EmiratesWestern Asia119[6]178.367.1
Addis Ababa EthiopiaAfrica12
Adelaide AustraliaOceania59.1 (2015–16)[7]47.4
Ahmedabad IndiaSouth Asia5922
Akron United StatesNorth America37.300 (2016)[8]32.8
Albany United StatesNorth America52.339 (2016)[8]58.4
Albuquerque United StatesNorth America43.250 (2016)[8]39.9
Alexandria EgyptAfrica32.446
Algiers AlgeriaAfrica45
Allentown United StatesNorth America42.700 (2016)[8]37.3
Almaty KazakhstanEast Asia53.1
Amsterdam NetherlandsWestern Europe154.0 (2015)[9]320.6[Note 1]47
Anápolis BrazilSouth America6.740 (2011)[10]
Ankara TurkeyWestern Asia104.95864.9
Anshan ChinaEast Asia67.4
Arnhem-Nijmegen NetherlandsWestern Europe27.9 (2016)[9]44.4
Athens GreeceSouthern Europe93.7 (2015)[9]129.696
Atlanta United StatesNorth America385.542 (2017)[8]294.4304249.7242.4[11]
Auckland New ZealandOceania49.555
Austin United StatesNorth America148.750 (2017)[8]107.4
Bakersfield United StatesNorth America35.162 (2016)[8]47.9
Baghdad IraqWestern Asia24
Baltimore United StatesNorth America192.178 (2017)[8]173.7137118.1[11]
Bandung IndonesiaSouth-East Asia20 (2017)[12]21
Bengaluru IndiaSouth Asia45.16928.6
Bangkok ThailandSouth-East Asia306.8119105.0
Baotou ChinaEast Asia40.8 (2017)[13]94.1
Barcelona SpainSouthern Europe173.315 (2017)[9]171.0177
Basel-Mulhouse  Switzerland FranceWestern Europe56.2
Baton Rouge United StatesNorth America51.149 (2014)[8]53.5
Beijing ChinaEast Asia441.4 (2017)[14]506.1166206.2
Belfast United KingdomNorthern Europe25.5 (2015)[9]
Belgrade SerbiaSouthern Europe17.4 (2014)[15]
Belo Horizonte BrazilSouth America54.996 (2011)[10]84.76178.5
Berlin GermanyWestern Europe215.2 (2015)[16]157.795
Bielefeld-Detmold GermanyWestern Europe50.5
Bilbao SpainSouthern Europe36.9 (2015)[9]38.5
Birmingham United KingdomNorthern Europe81.8 (2016)[9]121.190
Birmingham, Alabama United StatesNorth America62.758 (2016)[8]54.164
Bogotá ColombiaSouth America159.9100221.1 (2015)
Bologna ItalySouthern Europe43.4 (2015)[9]36.3
Bordeaux FranceWestern Europe55.9 (2015)[9]40.2
Boston United StatesNorth America438.684 (2017)[8]360.1363261.1[11]
Brasília BrazilSouth America164.482 (2011)[10]141.9110101.6
Braunschweig-Wolfsburg GermanyWestern Europe45.5
Bremen GermanyWestern Europe30.4 (2015)[16]47.9
Bridgeport United StatesNorth America98.256 (2017)[8]70.0
Brisbane AustraliaOceania120.6 (2015–16)[17]96.6
Bristol United KingdomNorthern Europe51.5 (2016)[9]47.7
Brussels BelgiumWestern Europe144.359 (2016)[9]254.383
Bucharest RomaniaSouthern Europe49.407 (2016)[9]72.4
Budapest HungaryCentral Europe58.5 (2016)[9]98.053
Buenos Aires ArgentinaSouth America315.9362191.7
Buffalo United StatesNorth America58.062 (2016)[8]72.7
Bursa TurkeyWestern Asia80.1
Busan South KoreaEast Asia296.5121
Cairo EgyptAfrica102.2145
Calgary CanadaNorth America97.9
Cambridge United KingdomNorthern Europe18.6[18]
Campinas BrazilSouth America40.525 (2011)[10]59.3
Campo Grande BrazilSouth America9.211 (2011)[10]
Campos dos Goytacazes BrazilSouth America16.174 (2011)[10]
Cape Town South AfricaAfrica58.9103
Caracas VenezuelaSouth America51.84192[19]
Cardiff-Newport United KingdomNorthern Europe33.7 (2016)[9]36.0
Casablanca MoroccoAfrica37.933
Changchun ChinaEast Asia96.7 (2017)[13]124.526
Changsha ChinaEast Asia156.0 (2017)[13]186.440.3
Changzhou ChinaEast Asia98.1 (2017)[13]110.934.3
Charlotte United StatesNorth America174.029 (2017)[8]126.2
Chengdu ChinaEast Asia205.7 (2017)[20]233.53357.8
Chennai IndiaSouth Asia58.666
Chicago United StatesNorth America679.699 (2017)[8]563.2574496.4461.4[11]
Chittagong BangladeshSouth Asia24
Chongqing ChinaEast Asia288.8 (2017)[13]315.65788.6
Cincinnati United StatesNorth America138.034 (2017)[8]110.9
Cleveland United StatesNorth America138.980 (2017)[8]115.111299.3[11]
Columbia United StatesNorth America40.086 (2016)[8]37.2
Columbus United StatesNorth America136.296 (2017)[8]108.9
Copenhagen DenmarkNorthern Europe134.3 (2016)[9]127.0[Note 2]49
Cork IrelandNorthern Europe

24.0 (2015)/>

Cracow PolandCentral Europe22.0 (2015)[9]33.1
Coventry United KingdomNorthern Europe7.4 (2008)[5]
Curitiba BrazilSouth America58.082 (2011)[10]57.744
Daegu South KoreaEast Asia54.543
Daejeon South KoreaEast Asia39.6
Dalian ChinaEast Asia109.1 (2017)[13]198.853.8
Dallas–Fort Worth United StatesNorth America613.4(2019)[21]412.7338324.9315.5[11]
Daqing ChinaEast Asia39.7 (2017)[13]98.5
Dayton United StatesNorth America40.572 (2016)[8]37.5
Dar es Salaam TanzaniaAfrica8
Delhi IndiaSouth Asia293.616747.6
Denver United StatesNorth America208.868 (2017)[8]169.7165131.6[11]
Des Moines United StatesNorth America50.246 (2016)[8]39.5
Detroit United StatesNorth America260.612 (2017)[8]207.5253198.6[11]
Dhaka BangladeshSouth Asia7829
Doha QatarWestern Asia98.8
Dongguan ChinaEast Asia112.3 (2017)[13]141.162.7
Dongying ChinaEast Asia56.3 (2017)[13]83.7
Dubai United Arab EmiratesWestern Asia82.9
Dublin IrelandNorthern Europe127.8 (2015)[9]90.161
Durban South AfricaAfrica48.9
Durham United StatesNorth America43.908 (2016)[8]37.0
East Rand South AfricaAfrica55.354
Edinburgh United KingdomNorthern Europe41.8 (2016)[9]32.5
Edmonton CanadaNorth America83.0
Eindhoven-Den Bosch NetherlandsWestern Europe91.5
El Paso United StatesNorth America28.644 (2016)[8]32.7
Faisalabad PakistanSouth Asia20.55[22]68.05
Florence ItalySouthern Europe40.1 (2015)[9]52.5
Fortaleza BrazilSouth America42.010 (2011)[10]35.225
Foshan ChinaEast Asia141.4 (2017)[13]184.583.5
Frankfurt GermanyWestern Europe230.0
Fresno United StatesNorth America40.465 (2016)[8]45.5
Fukuoka–Kitakyushu JapanEast Asia185 (2013)[23]193.388[Note 3]157.3[24]
Fuzhou ChinaEast Asia105.2 (2017)[13]117.423.4
Geneva  SwitzerlandWestern Europe44.0
George Town MalaysiaSouth-East Asia38.0
Glasgow United KingdomNorthern Europe66.4 (2016)[9]56.7
Gothenburg SwedenNorthern Europe84.4 (2016)[9]40.0
Grand Rapids United StatesNorth America58.465 (2016)[8]51.6
Greensboro United StatesNorth America39.944 (2016)[8]40.9
Greenville United StatesNorth America40.693 (2016)[8]35.6
Goiânia BrazilSouth America22.763 (2011)[10]
Guadalajara MexicoNorth America80.781
Guangzhou ChinaEast Asia341 (2017)[13]380.3143146.1
Gujranwala PakistanSouth Asia21 (2017)[13]20.315.3614.1
Gwangju South KoreaEast Asia36.7
Haifa IsraelWestern Asia40.4
Hamamatsu JapanEast Asia52.3
Hamburg GermanyWestern Europe120.1 (2015)[16]161.474
Hangzhou ChinaEast Asia150.8 (2015)[25]219.570.5
Hannover GermanyWestern Europe51.5 (2015)[16]59.6
Hanoi VietnamSouth-East Asia42
Harbin ChinaEast Asia94.1 (2017)[13]127.938.8
Harrisburg United StatesNorth America35.465 (2016)[8]35.1
Hartford United StatesNorth America90.318 (2017)[8]101.2
Hefei ChinaEast Asia106.8 (2017)[13]120.931.2
Helsinki FinlandNorthern Europe90.8 (2015)[9]77.158
Hiroshima JapanEast Asia74.9
Ho Chi Minh City VietnamSouth-East Asia71.158
Hong Kong Hong KongEast Asia364.8 (2018)[26]416.0320224.5258.0[27]
Honolulu United StatesNorth America64.756 (2016)[8]58.6
Houston United StatesNorth America490.074 (2017)[8]483.2297341.1316.3[11]
Hsinchu TaiwanEast Asia38.4
Huhehaote ChinaEast Asia70.1
Huntsville United StatesNorth America24.846 (2016)[8]
Hyderabad IndiaSouth Asia40.259
Indianapolis United StatesNorth America143.873 (2017)[8]113.606
Islamabad PakistanSouth Asia18.71828.2
Istanbul TurkeyWestern Asia348.7182188.2
Izmir TurkeyWestern Asia80.142
Jacksonville United StatesNorth America71.471 (2016)[8]63.8
Jaipur IndiaSouth Asia2420
Jakarta IndonesiaSouth-East Asia186 (2018)[28]321.39270.7
Jeddah Saudi ArabiaWestern Asia160.67275.9
Jerusalem IsraelWestern Asia48.0 (2015)[29]
Jinan ChinaEast Asia106.7 (2017)[13]136.843.2
Johannesburg South AfricaAfrica82.9110
Jundiaí BrazilSouth America20.081 (2011)[10]
Kabul AfghanistanSouth Asia14
Kagoshima JapanEast Asia34.3
Kano NigeriaAfrica9
Kanpur IndiaSouth Asia264
Kansas City United StatesNorth America131.092 (2017)[8]105.991.2[11]
Kaohsiung TaiwanEast Asia113.6477828
Karachi PakistanSouth Asia144 (2017)78238.36
Karlsruhe GermanyWestern Europe37.6 (2015)[9]137.1
Katowice PolandCentral Europe37.9 (2015)[9]122.3
Kaunas LithuaniaNorthern Europe10.0 (2016)[30]
Khartoum SudanAfrica35
Kiev UkraineEastern Europe20 (2016)[31]
Kingston-upon-Hull United KingdomNorthern Europe17.7 (2016)[9]
Kinshasa DR CongoAfrica17
Klaipėda LithuaniaNorthern Europe6.0 (2016)[32]
Knoxville United StatesNorth America39.825 (2016)[8]38.3
Kolkata IndiaSouth Asia60.4104
Kuala Lumpur MalaysiaSouth-East Asia171.8
Kumamoto JapanEast Asia41.8
Kunming ChinaEast Asia72.0 (2017)[13]88.6
Kuwait City KuwaitWestern Asia166.5117.5
Lagos NigeriaAfrica74.67 (2010)[33]35
Lahore PakistanSouth Asia58.14 (2015)[34][35]40129.5
Las Vegas United StatesNorth America112.288 (2017)[8]93.9
Leeds United KingdomNorthern Europe44.8 (2016)[9]74.6[Note 4]60
Leicester United KingdomNorthern Europe46.8 (2016)[9]28.7[36]
Leipzig-Halle GermanyWestern Europe33.4 (2015)[9]39.6
Lille FranceWestern Europe83.3 (2015)[9]98.533
Lima PeruSouth America176.510977.3
Linz AustriaWestern Europe37.9 (2015)[9]44.6
Lisbon PortugalSouthern Europe72.0 (2015)[9]96.398
Little Rock United StatesNorth America37.796 (2016)[8]40.7
Liverpool United KingdomNorthern Europe47.8 (2016)[9]65.8
London United KingdomNorthern Europe595.7 (2016)[37]835.7565751.8
Los Angeles United StatesNorth America1,043.735 (2017)[38]860.5792731.8632.4[11]
Louisville United StatesNorth America74.968 (2016)[8]62.397
Luanda AngolaAfrica3338.6
Lucknow IndiaSouth Asia22
Luxembourg-Trier Luxembourg GermanyWestern Europe62 (2014)[39]62
Luton United KingdomNorthern Europe7.2[40]
Lyon FranceWestern Europe88.2 (2016)[9]97.069197[41]
Macau MacauEast Asia53.7 (2018)[42]53.9
Madison United StatesNorth America47.425 (2016)[8]41.8
Madrid SpainSouthern Europe248.56 (2017)[9]262.3230
Manaus BrazilSouth America51.025 (2011)[10]
Manchester United KingdomNorthern Europe113.7 (2016)[9]92.385
Manila PhilippinesSouth-East Asia276.4189
Marseille FranceWestern Europe104.1 (2015)[9]60.3
Medellín ColombiaSouth America43.550
Medan IndonesiaSouth-East Asia10 (2017)[43]8.09[44]
Melbourne AustraliaOceania229.2 (2015–16)[45]178.4172221.4
Memphis United StatesNorth America71.450 (2016)[8]65.0
Mexico City MexicoNorth America403.6390255.1
Miami United StatesNorth America344.882 (2016)[8]262.7292235.9231.8[11]
Milan ItalySouthern Europe671.22 (2018)[9]312.1136
Milwaukee United StatesNorth America105.427 (2017)[8]86.5
Minneapolis/St. Paul United StatesNorth America260.106 (2017)[8]211.4194171.6[11]
Minsk BelarusEastern Europe13.0 (2012)[46]
Monterrey MexicoNorth America122.9102
Montevideo UruguaySouth America3147.7 (2019)[47][Note 5]
Montreal CanadaNorth America155.9148
Moscow RussiaEastern Europe225.0 (2015)[48]553.3321325.8
Multan PakistanSouth Asia17.425 (2016)24.15
Mumbai IndiaSouth Asia150.920955.9
Munich GermanyWestern Europe190.0 (2016)[9]219.964
Nagoya JapanEast Asia368 (2013)[49]363.8256.3[50]
Nagpur IndiaSouth Asia18
Nairobi KenyaAfrica12
Nanchang ChinaEast Asia74.1 (2017)[13]96.0
Nanjing ChinaEast Asia173.5 (2017)202.768.5
Nanning ChinaEast Asia61.0 (2017)[13]70.3
Nantes FranceWestern Europe51.0 (2016)[9]32.0
Nantong ChinaEast Asia114.6 (2017)[13]128.3
Naples ItalySouthern Europe62.8 (2015)[9]85.551
Nashville United StatesNorth America133.251 (2017)[8]95.0
New Haven United StatesNorth America44.120 (2016)[8]53.3
New Orleans United StatesNorth America77.173 (2016)[8]74.2
New York United StatesNorth America1,717.712 (2017)[38]1,4031,4061,180.31,056.4[11]
Newcastle United KingdomNorthern Europe36.0 (2016)[9]44.6
Nice FranceWestern Europe36.1 (2015)[9]46.0
Niigata JapanEast Asia50.3
Ningbo ChinaEast Asia145.8 (2017)[13]179.045.0
Nottingham-Derby United KingdomNorthern Europe51.0
Nürnberg-Fürth GermanyWestern Europe164.6 (2014)[51]74.5
Okayama JapanEast Asia56.8
Oklahoma City United StatesNorth America70.235 (2016)[8]70.010
Omaha United StatesNorth America61.289 (2016)[8]51.2
Orlando United StatesNorth America132.448 (2017)[8]116.2
Osaka–Kobe JapanEast Asia681 (2015)671.3[Note 6]417612.8[52]
Oslo NorwayNorthern Europe74.0 (2014)[53]74.440
Ottawa CanadaNorth America58.2
Oxnard United StatesNorth America48.516 (2016)[8]46.3
Paris FranceWestern Europe724 (2016)[54]715.1564764.2
Patna IndiaSouth Asia1511
Perth AustraliaOceania112.2 (2015–16)[55]134.0
Philadelphia United StatesNorth America444.975 (2017)[8]346.5388314.5295.2[11]
Phoenix United StatesNorth America242.951 (2017)[8]207.1200181.6160[11]
Pittsburgh United StatesNorth America147.367 (2017)[8]138.499102.1[11]
Portland United StatesNorth America171.772 (2017)[8]158.511095.6[11]
Porto PortugalSouthern Europe31.3 (2015)[9]43.0
Porto Alegre BrazilSouth America45.506 (2011)[10]62.166
Portsmouth United KingdomNorthern Europe25.9 (2016)[9]51.6[Note 7]
Prague Czech RepublicCentral Europe73.0 (2016)[9]89.249
Pretoria South AfricaAfrica49.9
Providence United StatesNorth America80.164 (2016)[8]78.114
Puebla MexicoNorth America38.142
Pune IndiaSouth Asia138897849
Pyongyang North KoreaEast Asia11
Qingdao ChinaEast Asia163.5 (2017)[13]208.748.1
Quebec City CanadaNorth America33.4
Raleigh United StatesNorth America83.288 (2017)[8]64.4
Rangoon MyanmarSouth-East Asia24
Recife BrazilSouth America36.448 (2011)[10]40.535
Rhine-Ruhr GermanyWestern Europe350.30 (2014)[51]485.239[Note 8]484.6
Richmond United StatesNorth America80.702 (2016)[8]71.589
Riga LatviaNorthern Europe16.0 (2014)[56]
Rio de Janeiro BrazilSouth America209.366 (2011)[10]176.6201180.9
Riyadh Saudi ArabiaWestern Asia163.5107122.7
Rochester United StatesNorth America55.426 (2016)[8]67.8
Rome ItalySouthern Europe166.8 (2015)[9]163.2144
Rotterdam NetherlandsWestern Europe69.0 (2015)[9]320.6[Note 9]46
Saarbrucken GermanyWestern Europe41.7
Sacramento United StatesNorth America126.352 (2017)[8]127.4
Salt Lake City United StatesNorth America87.801 (2017)[8]73.836
St. Louis United StatesNorth America161.281 (2017)[8]140.6126116.2[11]
Saint Petersburg RussiaEastern Europe63[48]119.691
Salvador BrazilSouth America38.819 (2011)[10]38.510
San Antonio United StatesNorth America129.298 (2017)[8]102.771146.3[11]
San Bernardino-Riverside United StatesNorth America157.931 (2017)[8]154.904
San Diego United StatesNorth America231.845 (2017)[8]202.5191172.9146.3[11]
San Francisco United StatesNorth America500.710 (2017)[8]331.0301283.3268.3[11]
San Jose United StatesNorth America275.293 (2017)[8]160.3
San Juan Puerto RicoCaribbean42.7
Santiago ChileSouth America171.412093.0
Santos BrazilSouth America28.609 (2011)[10]
São José dos Campos BrazilSouth America30.148 (2011)[10]
São José dos Pinhais BrazilSouth America14.726 (2011)[10]
São Paulo BrazilSouth America408.938 (2013)[10][57]430.5388437.3
Sapporo JapanEast Asia80.5
Seattle United StatesNorth America356.572 (2017)[8]267.5235211.0182.2[11]
Sendai JapanEast Asia75.3
Seoul South KoreaEast Asia738.6 (2017)[58]845.9291233.3
Seville SpainSouthern Europe44.665 (2018)[9]35.8
Shanghai ChinaEast Asia469 (2017)[59]594.0233250.7200.0[60]
Shantou ChinaEast Asia34.8 (2017)[59]38.7
Sheffield United KingdomNorthern Europe17.4 (2016)[9]39.8
Shenyang ChinaEast Asia86.9 (2017)[59]189.34464.3
Shenzhen ChinaEast Asia338 (2017)[61]363.2141.5
Shijiazhuang ChinaEast Asia95.7 (2017)[59]130.5
Shizuoka JapanEast Asia58.4
Singapore SingaporeSouth-East Asia349.5 (2018)[62][63]365.9215222.7267.9[64]
Sofia BulgariaSouthern Europe24.0 (2016)[9]43.8
Sorocaba BrazilSouth America21.313 (2011)[10]
Southampton United KingdomNorthern Europe9.6 (2016)[9]51.6[Note 10]
Springfield United StatesNorth America27.333 (2016)[8]32.8
Stockholm SwedenNorthern Europe180[65]143.070208[65]
Strasbourg FranceWestern Europe37.3
Stuttgart GermanyWestern Europe173.5 (2016)[9]157.8
Surabaya IndonesiaSouth-East Asia70 (2016)[66]102 (2016)[67]
Surat IndiaSouth Asia59.83614
Suzhou ChinaEast Asia256.5 (2017)[13]339.052.7
Sydney AustraliaOceania302.7 (2015–16)[68]223.4213268.9
Syracuse United StatesNorth America32.683 (2016)[8]40.6
Taichung TaiwanEast Asia114.7
Tainan TaiwanEast Asia76.7
Taipei TaiwanEast Asia327.3160.3172.5[69]
Taiyuan ChinaEast Asia63.0
Tallinn EstoniaNorthern Europe16.0 (2014)[70]
Tampa United StatesNorth America146.349 (2017)[8]130.3123101[11]
Tangshan ChinaEast Asia105.3 (2017)[59]162.333.6
Taoyuan TaiwanEast Asia86.8
Tbilisi GeorgiaWestern Asia8.0 (2017)[71]
Tehran IranSouth Asia127
Tel Aviv IsraelWestern Asia153.3122114.8
Thessaloniki GreeceSouthern Europe19.8 (2011)[72]
Tianjin ChinaEast Asia275.4 (2017)[73]372.074128.8
Tokyo JapanEast Asia1,893 (2015)[74]1,6171,4791,874.71,997.5[75]
1,797.9[76]
Toronto CanadaNorth America303 (2014)[77]276.3253270.0
Toulouse FranceWestern Europe58.7 (2015)[9]47.4
Tucson United StatesNorth America37.040 (2016)[8]41.2
Tulsa United StatesNorth America58.248 (2016)[8]48.646.4[78]
Turin ItalySouthern Europe76.9 (2015)[9]78.868
Uberlandia BrazilSouth America14.728 (2011)[10]
Valencia SpainSouthern Europe60.274 (2016)[9]52.7
Vancouver CanadaNorth America109.895
Venice-Padua ItalySouthern Europe62.2 (2015)[9]57.3
Vienna AustriaWestern Europe131.9 (2015)[9]183.7[Note 11]122
Vilnius LithuaniaNorthern Europe20.0 (2016)[32]
Virginia Beach United StatesNorth America94.855 (2017)[8]92.1
Visakhapatnam IndiaSouth Asia43.56
Vitória BrazilSouth America28.357 (2011)[10]35.6
Warsaw PolandCentral Europe100 (2017)[79]141.168
Washington, DC United StatesNorth America529.990 (2017)[8]442.2375392.2
Wenzhou ChinaEast Asia80.8 (2017)[13]101.9
Winnipeg CanadaNorth America32.5
Worcester United StatesNorth America44.7
Wuhan ChinaEast Asia198.6 (2017)[13]231.65282.2
Wulumuqi ChinaEast Asia59.6
Wuxi ChinaEast Asia155.7 (2017)[13]211.547.0
Xiamen ChinaEast Asia64.4 (2017)[13]76.130.4
Xian ChinaEast Asia110.6 (2017)[13]124.23140.6
Xuzhou ChinaEast Asia97.8 (2017)[13]113.222.4
Yantai ChinaEast Asia108.7 (2017)[13]149.0
Zhengzhou ChinaEast Asia135.3 (2017)[13]156.0
Zhongshan ChinaEast Asia51.1 (2017)[13]68.7
Zhuhai ChinaEast Asia38.0 (2017)[13]41.3
Zibo ChinaEast Asia70.8 (2017)[13]100.3
Zürich  SwitzerlandWestern Europe109.152
Notes
  1. ^ This includes Rotterdam.
  2. ^ This includes Malmö.
  3. ^ This includes only Fukuoka.
  4. ^ This includes Bradford.
  5. ^ Projection for 2019 based on $33bn in 2010 and $61bn for 2025. ((($61/$33)^(1/15))^9)*$33= $47,709.348 million.
  6. ^ This includes Kyoto.
  7. ^ This includes Southampton.
  8. ^ This includes only Cologne and Bonn in the PwC study.
  9. ^ This includes Amsterdam.
  10. ^ This includes Portsmouth.
  11. ^ This includes Bratislava.