History of liberalism

  • liberalism, the belief in freedom and human rights, is historically associated with thinkers such as john locke and montesquieu. it is a political movement which spans the better part of the last four centuries, though the use of the word "liberalism" to refer to a specific political doctrine did not occur until the 19th century. the glorious revolution of 1688 in england laid the foundations for the development of the modern liberal state by constitutionally limiting the power of the monarch, affirming parliamentary supremacy, passing the bill of rights and establishing the principle of "consent of the governed". the 1776 declaration of independence of the united states founded the nascent republic on liberal principles without the encumbrance of hereditary aristocracy—the declaration stated that "all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, among these life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness",[1] echoing john locke's phrase "life, liberty, and property". a few years later, the french revolution overthrew the hereditary aristocracy, with the slogan "liberty, equality, fraternity" and was the first state in history to grant universal male suffrage. the declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen, first codified in 1789 in france, is a foundational document of both liberalism and human rights. the intellectual progress of the enlightenment, which questioned old traditions about societies and governments, eventually coalesced into powerful revolutionary movements that toppled what the french called the ancien régime, the belief in absolute monarchy and established religion, especially in europe, latin america and north america.

    william henry of orange in the glorious revolution, thomas jefferson in the american revolution and lafayette in the french revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyrannical rule. liberalism started to spread rapidly especially after the french revolution. the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across europe, south america and north america.[2] in this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fascism and communism. liberal government often adopted the economic beliefs espoused by adam smith, john stuart mill and others, which broadly emphasized the importance of free markets and laissez-faire governance, with a minimum of interference in trade.

    during 19th and early 20th century in the ottoman empire and middle east, liberalism influenced periods of reform such as the tanzimat and nahda and the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism. these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within islam which continues to this day—this led to islamic revivalism. during the 20th century, liberal ideas spread even further as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. in europe and north america, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply "liberalism" in the united states) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.[3] today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world, but it still has challenges to overcome in africa and asia. later waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were strongly influenced by the need to expand civil rights.[4] liberals have advocated for gender equality and racial equality and a global social movement for civil rights in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals.[5]

  • early history
  • glorious revolution
  • age of enlightenment
  • era of revolution
  • classical liberalism
  • worldwide spread
  • historiography
  • notes
  • references and further reading

Liberalism, the belief in freedom and human rights, is historically associated with thinkers such as John Locke and Montesquieu. It is a political movement which spans the better part of the last four centuries, though the use of the word "liberalism" to refer to a specific political doctrine did not occur until the 19th century. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England laid the foundations for the development of the modern liberal state by constitutionally limiting the power of the monarch, affirming parliamentary supremacy, passing the Bill of Rights and establishing the principle of "consent of the governed". The 1776 Declaration of Independence of the United States founded the nascent republic on liberal principles without the encumbrance of hereditary aristocracy—the declaration stated that "all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, among these life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness",[1] echoing John Locke's phrase "life, liberty, and property". A few years later, the French Revolution overthrew the hereditary aristocracy, with the slogan "liberty, equality, fraternity" and was the first state in history to grant universal male suffrage. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, first codified in 1789 in France, is a foundational document of both liberalism and human rights. The intellectual progress of the Enlightenment, which questioned old traditions about societies and governments, eventually coalesced into powerful revolutionary movements that toppled what the French called the Ancien Régime, the belief in absolute monarchy and established religion, especially in Europe, Latin America and North America.

William Henry of Orange in the Glorious Revolution, Thomas Jefferson in the American Revolution and Lafayette in the French Revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyrannical rule. Liberalism started to spread rapidly especially after the French Revolution. The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, South America and North America.[2] In this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fascism and communism. Liberal government often adopted the economic beliefs espoused by Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill and others, which broadly emphasized the importance of free markets and laissez-faire governance, with a minimum of interference in trade.

During 19th and early 20th century in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East, liberalism influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Nahda and the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism. These changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam which continues to this day—this led to Islamic revivalism. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread even further as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply "liberalism" in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.[3] Today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world, but it still has challenges to overcome in Africa and Asia. Later waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were strongly influenced by the need to expand civil rights.[4] Liberals have advocated for gender equality and racial equality and a global social movement for civil rights in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals.[5]