French and Raven's bases of power
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In a notable study of power conducted by
French and Raven defined social influence as a change in the belief, attitude, or behavior of a person (the target of influence) that results from the action of another person (an influencing agent), and they defined social power as the potential for such influence, that is, the ability of the agent to bring about such a change using available resources.
Though there have been many formal definitions of leadership that did not include
Whereby, this is to be considered "power" in social influential situations.
The original French and Raven (1959) model included five bases of power – reward, coercion, legitimate, expert, and referent – however, informational power was added by Raven in 1965, bringing the total to six. Since then, the model has gone through very significant developments: coercion and reward can have personal as well as impersonal forms. Expert and referent power can be negative or positive. Legitimate power, in addition to position power, may be based on other normative obligations: reciprocity, equity, and responsibility. Information may be utilized in direct or indirect fashion.
French and Raven defined social power as the potential for influence (a change in the belief, attitude or behavior of a someone who is the target of influence.
As we know