Euroscepticism

  • european union
    flag of europe.svg
    this article is part of a series on the
    politics and government of
    the european union
    flag of europe.svg european union portal
    • other countries
    • atlas

    euroscepticism, also known as eu-scepticism,[1][2][3] means criticism of the european union (eu) and european integration. it ranges from those who oppose some eu institutions and policies and seek reform (soft euroscepticism), to those who oppose eu membership outright and see the eu as unreformable (hard euroscepticism or anti-european unionism/anti-euism).[4][5][6] the opposite of euroscepticism is known as pro-europeanism, or european unionism. euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-europeanism, which is a dislike of european culture and european ethnic groups by non-europeans.

    the main sources of euroscepticism have been beliefs that integration undermines national sovereignty and the nation state,[7][8] that the eu is elitist and lacks democratic legitimacy and transparency,[7][8] that it is too bureaucratic and wasteful,[7][9][10] that it encourages high levels of migration,[7] or perceptions that it is a neoliberal organisation serving the business elite at the expense of the working class,[11] responsible for austerity[7] and driving privatization.[12]

    euroscepticism is found in groups across the political spectrum, both left-wing and right-wing and is often found in populist parties.[7] although they criticise the eu for many of the same reasons, eurosceptic left-wing populists focus more on economic issues (such as the european debt crisis and ttip)[13][12][14][15] while eurosceptic right-wing populists focus more on nationalism and immigration (such as the european migrant crisis).[16] the rise in radical right-wing parties since the 2000s is strongly linked to a rise in euroscepticism.[17]

    eurobarometer surveys of eu citizens show that trust in the eu and its institutions has declined strongly since a peak in 2007.[18] since then, it has been consistently below 50%.[19] a 2009 survey showed that support for eu membership was lowest in the united kingdom (uk), latvia and hungary.[20] by 2016, the countries viewing the eu most unfavourably were the uk, greece, france and spain.[21] a referendum on continued eu membership was held in the uk in 2016 which resulted in a 51.9% vote in favour of leaving the eu. the uk officially left the eu on 31 january 2020. since 2015, trust in the eu has risen slightly in most eu countries as a result of falling unemployment rates and accelerating economic growth.[22] post 2019 election survey "eurobarometer" report showed that 68% citizens support the european union, the highest level since 1983; at the same time sentiment among europeans that things are not going in the right direction in both the eu and in their own countries had increased to 50%.[23]

  • global outlook
  • terminology
  • eurobarometer surveys
  • history in the european parliament
  • in eu member states
  • in prospective members
  • in eu former member state
  • see also
  • footnotes
  • references

Flag of Europe.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the European Union
Flag of Europe.svg European Union portal

Euroscepticism, also known as EU-scepticism,[1][2][3] means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration. It ranges from those who oppose some EU institutions and policies and seek reform (soft Euroscepticism), to those who oppose EU membership outright and see the EU as unreformable (hard Euroscepticism or anti-European Unionism/anti-EUism).[4][5][6] The opposite of Euroscepticism is known as pro-Europeanism, or European Unionism. Euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-Europeanism, which is a dislike of European culture and European ethnic groups by non-Europeans.

The main sources of Euroscepticism have been beliefs that integration undermines national sovereignty and the nation state,[7][8] that the EU is elitist and lacks democratic legitimacy and transparency,[7][8] that it is too bureaucratic and wasteful,[7][9][10] that it encourages high levels of migration,[7] or perceptions that it is a neoliberal organisation serving the business elite at the expense of the working class,[11] responsible for austerity[7] and driving privatization.[12]

Euroscepticism is found in groups across the political spectrum, both left-wing and right-wing and is often found in populist parties.[7] Although they criticise the EU for many of the same reasons, Eurosceptic left-wing populists focus more on economic issues (such as the European debt crisis and TTIP)[13][12][14][15] while Eurosceptic right-wing populists focus more on nationalism and immigration (such as the European migrant crisis).[16] The rise in radical right-wing parties since the 2000s is strongly linked to a rise in Euroscepticism.[17]

Eurobarometer surveys of EU citizens show that trust in the EU and its institutions has declined strongly since a peak in 2007.[18] Since then, it has been consistently below 50%.[19] A 2009 survey showed that support for EU membership was lowest in the United Kingdom (UK), Latvia and Hungary.[20] By 2016, the countries viewing the EU most unfavourably were the UK, Greece, France and Spain.[21] A referendum on continued EU membership was held in the UK in 2016 which resulted in a 51.9% vote in favour of leaving the EU. The UK officially left the EU on 31 January 2020. Since 2015, trust in the EU has risen slightly in most EU countries as a result of falling unemployment rates and accelerating economic growth.[22] Post 2019 election survey "Eurobarometer" report showed that 68% citizens support the European Union, the highest level since 1983; at the same time sentiment among Europeans that things are not going in the right direction in both the EU and in their own countries had increased to 50%.[23]