European Coal and Steel Community

  • european coal and steel community

    1952–2002¹
    flag of ecsc
    flag
    founding members of the ecsc: belgium, france, italy, luxembourg, the netherlands and west germany (algeria was an integral part of the french republic)
    founding members of the ecsc: belgium, france,
    italy, luxembourg, the netherlands and west germany
    (algeria was an integral part of the french republic)
    statusinternational organisation
    capitalnot applicable²
    common languages
    president of the high authority 
    • 1952–1955
    jean monnet
    • 1955–1958
    rené mayer
    • 1958–1959
    paul finet
    • 1959–1963
    piero malvestiti
    • 1963–1967
    rinaldo del bo
    historical eracold war
    • signing (treaty of paris)
    18 april 1951
    • in force
    23 july 1952
    • merger
    1 july 1967
    • treaty expired
    23 july 2002¹
    preceded by
    succeeded by
    international authority for the ruhr
    european union
    today part of european union
    1. the ecsc treaty expired in 2002, fifty years after it came into force,[1] but its institutions were taken over in 1967 following the merger treaty.
    2. the political centres were luxembourg and strasbourg, later also brussels.
    3. initial founding languages, before the merger and subsequent enlargements, were dutch, french, german and italian.

    the european coal and steel community (ecsc) was an organisation of six european countries created after world war ii to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority. it was formally established in 1951 by the treaty of paris, signed by belgium, france, italy, luxembourg, the netherlands, and west germany. the ecsc was the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism,[2] and started the process of formal integration which ultimately led to the european union.

    the ecsc was first proposed by french foreign minister robert schuman on 9 may 1950 as a way to prevent further war between france and germany. he declared his aim was to "make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible"[3] which was to be achieved by regional integration, of which the ecsc was the first step. the treaty would create a common market for coal and steel among its member states which served to neutralise competition between european nations over natural resources, particularly in the ruhr.

    the ecsc was overseen by four institutions: a high authority composed of independent appointees, a common assembly composed of national parliamentarians, a special council composed of national ministers, and a court of justice. these would ultimately form the blueprint for today's european commission, european parliament, the council of the european union and the european court of justice.

    the ecsc stood as a model for the communities set up after it by the treaty of rome in 1957, the european economic community and european atomic energy community, with whom it shared its membership and some institutions. the 1967 merger (brussels) treaty led all of ecsc's institutions to merge into the european economic community, but the ecsc retained its own independent legal personality. in 2002, the treaty of paris expired and the ecsc ceased to exist in any form, its activities fully absorbed by the european community under the framework of the amsterdam and nice treaties.

  • history
  • institutions
  • achievements and failures
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

European Coal and Steel Community

1952–2002¹
Flag of ECSC
Founding members of the ECSC: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany (Algeria was an integral part of the French Republic)
Founding members of the ECSC: Belgium, France,
Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany
(Algeria was an integral part of the French Republic)
StatusInternational organisation
CapitalNot applicable²
Common languages
President of the High Authority 
• 1952–1955
Jean Monnet
• 1955–1958
René Mayer
• 1958–1959
Paul Finet
• 1959–1963
Piero Malvestiti
• 1963–1967
Rinaldo Del Bo
Historical eraCold War
• Signing (Treaty of Paris)
18 April 1951
• In force
23 July 1952
• Merger
1 July 1967
23 July 2002¹
Preceded by
Succeeded by
International Authority for the Ruhr
European Union
Today part of European Union
  1. The ECSC treaty expired in 2002, fifty years after it came into force,[1] but its institutions were taken over in 1967 following the Merger Treaty.
  2. The political centres were Luxembourg and Strasbourg, later also Brussels.
  3. Initial founding languages, before the merger and subsequent enlargements, were Dutch, French, German and Italian.

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of six European countries created after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority. It was formally established in 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, signed by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The ECSC was the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism,[2] and started the process of formal integration which ultimately led to the European Union.

The ECSC was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950 as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. He declared his aim was to "make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible"[3] which was to be achieved by regional integration, of which the ECSC was the first step. The Treaty would create a common market for coal and steel among its member states which served to neutralise competition between European nations over natural resources, particularly in the Ruhr.

The ECSC was overseen by four institutions: a High Authority composed of independent appointees, a Common Assembly composed of national parliamentarians, a Special Council composed of national ministers, and a Court of Justice. These would ultimately form the blueprint for today's European Commission, European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Court of Justice.

The ECSC stood as a model for the communities set up after it by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community, with whom it shared its membership and some institutions. The 1967 Merger (Brussels) Treaty led all of ECSC's institutions to merge into the European Economic Community, but the ECSC retained its own independent legal personality. In 2002, the Treaty of Paris expired and the ECSC ceased to exist in any form, its activities fully absorbed by the European Community under the framework of the Amsterdam and Nice treaties.