Canada

  • canada

    a vertical triband design (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the center.
    flag
    at the top there is a rendition of st. edward's crown, with the crest of a crowned gold lion standing on a twisted wreath of red and white silk and holding a maple leaf in its right paw underneath. the lion is standing on top of a helm, which is above the escutcheon, ribbon, motto and compartment. there is a supporter of either side of the escutcheon and ribbon; an english lion on the left and a scottish unicorn on the right.
    coat of arms
    motto: a mari usque ad mare  (latin)
    "from sea to sea"
    anthem: "o canada"[a]
    a projection of north america with canada highlighted in green
    capitalottawa
    45°24′n 75°40′w / 45°24′n 75°40′w / 45.400; -75.667
    largest citytoronto
    official languages
    • english
    • french
    ethnic groups
    (2016)[2]
    religion
    (2011)[3]
    demonym(s)canadian
    governmentfederal parliamentary
    constitutional monarchy[4]
    • monarch
    elizabeth ii
    • governor general
    julie payette
    • prime minister
    justin trudeau
    • deputy prime minister
    chrystia freeland
    legislatureparliament
    • upper house
    senate
    • lower house
    house of commons
    independence 
    from the united kingdom
    • confederation
    july 1, 1867
    • statute of westminster
    december 11, 1931
    • patriation
    april 17, 1982
    area
    • total area
    9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
    • water (%)
    8.92
    • total land area
    9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
    population
    • q1 2020 estimate
    37,894,799[5] (38th)
    • 2016 census
    35,151,728[6]
    • density
    3.92/km2 (10.2/sq mi) (228th)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $1.971 trillion[7] (16th)
    • per capita
    increase $52,144[7] (21st)
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $1.812 trillion[7] (10th)
    • per capita
    increase $47,931[7] (17th)
    gini (2017)negative increase 31.0[8]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.922[9]
    very high · 13th
    currencycanadian dollar ($) (cad)
    time zoneutc−3.5 to −8
    • summer (dst)
    utc−2.5 to −7
    date formatyyyy-mm-dd (ad)[10]
    driving sideright
    calling code+1
    internet tld.ca

    canada is a country in the northern part of north america. its ten provinces and three territories extend from the atlantic to the pacific and northward into the arctic ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. its southern border with the united states, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. canada's capital is ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are toronto, montreal, and vancouver.

    various indigenous peoples inhabited what is now canada for thousands of years before european colonization. beginning in the 16th century, british and french expeditions explored and later settled along the atlantic coast. as a consequence of various armed conflicts, france ceded nearly all of its colonies in north america in 1763. in 1867, with the union of three british north american colonies through confederation, canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united kingdom. this widening autonomy was highlighted by the statute of westminster of 1931 and culminated in the canada act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the british parliament.

    canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the cabinet and head of government. the country is a realm within the commonwealth of nations, a member of the francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. it ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. it is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. canada's long and complex relationship with the united states has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

    a developed country, canada has the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally as well as the thirteenth-highest ranking in the human development index. its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united nations, nato, the g7, the group of ten, the g20, the north american free trade agreement and the asia-pacific economic cooperation forum.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography and climate
  • government and politics
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Canada

Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"[a]
A projection of North America with Canada highlighted in green
CapitalOttawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2016)[2]
Religion
(2011)[3]
Demonym(s)Canadian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy[4]
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Julie Payette
Justin Trudeau
Chrystia Freeland
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence 
from the United Kingdom
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
Area
• Total area
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
8.92
• Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
Population
• Q1 2020 estimate
37,894,799[5] (38th)
• 2016 census
35,151,728[6]
• Density
3.92/km2 (10.2/sq mi) (228th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.971 trillion[7] (16th)
• Per capita
Increase $52,144[7] (21st)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.812 trillion[7] (10th)
• Per capita
Increase $47,931[7] (17th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 31.0[8]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.922[9]
very high · 13th
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC−3.5 to −8
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (AD)[10]
Driving sideright
Calling code+1
Internet TLD.ca

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Various indigenous peoples inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

A developed country, Canada has the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally as well as the thirteenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.