Austria

  • republic of austria

    republik Österreich  (german)
    flag of austria
    flag
    coat of arms of austria
    coat of arms
    anthem: 
    • land der berge, land am strome  (german)
    • land of mountains, land by the river
    location of austria (dark green) – in europe (green & dark grey) – in the european union (green)  –  [legend]
    location of austria (dark green)

    – in europe (green & dark grey)
    – in the european union (green)  –  [legend]

    capital
    and largest city
    vienna
    48°12′n 16°21′e / 48°12′n 16°21′e / 48.200; 16.350
    official language
    and national language
    german[a][b]
    recognised languages
    • hungarian
    • slovene
    • burgenland croatian[1][2]
    ethnic groups
    (2012)
    • 81.1% austrians[3]
    • 6.3% ex-yugoslavs
    • 2.7% germans
    • 2.2% turks
    • 8.7% others
    religion
    • 57% catholic
    • 8.7% eastern orthodox
    • 7.9% muslim
    • 3.3% evangelical christians
    • 23.1% other/none[4]
    demonym(s)austrian
    governmentfederal parliamentary republic
    • president
    alexander van der bellen
    • chancellor
    sebastian kurz
    • vice chancellor
    werner kogler
    • national council president
    wolfgang sobotka
    • constitutional court
    president
    christoph grabenwarter
    legislatureparliament
    • upper house
    federal council
    • lower house
    national council
    establishment history
    • margraviate of austria
    976
    • duchy of austria
    1156
    • archduchy of austria
    1453
    • austrian empire
    1804
    • austro-hungarian empire
    1867
    • first republic
    1918
    • federal state
    1934
    • anschluss
    1938
    • second republic
    since 1945
    • state treaty in effect
    27 july 1955
    • admitted to the united nations
    14 december 1955
    • joined the european union
    1 january 1995
    area
    • total
    83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
    • water (%)
    1.7
    population
    • january 2020 estimate
    increase8,902,600[5] (96th)
    • density
    106/km2 (274.5/sq mi) (106th)
    gdp (ppp)2018 estimate
    • total
    $461.432 billion[6]
    • per capita
    $51,936[6] (17th)
    gdp (nominal)2018 estimate
    • total
    $477.672 billion[6] (29th)
    • per capita
    $53,764[6] (13th)
    gini (2018)positive decrease 26.8[7]
    low · 14th
    hdi (2018)increase 0.914[8]
    very high · 20th
    currencyeuro ()[c] (eur)
    time zoneutc+1 (cet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+2 (cest)
    driving sideright
    calling code+43
    iso 3166 codeat
    internet tld.at[d]
    1. ^ there is an official dictionary, the Österreichisches wörterbuch, published on commission by the austrian ministry of education.
    2. ^ croatian, czech, hungarian, romani, slovak, and slovene are officially recognised by the european charter for regional or minority languages (ecrml).
    3. ^ austrian schilling before 1999; virtual euro since 1 january 1999; euro since 1 january 2002.
    4. ^ the .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other european union member states.

    austria (ə/ (about this soundlisten), s-/;[9] german: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] (about this soundlisten)), officially the republic of austria (german: republik Österreich, about this soundlisten ), is a landlocked east alpine country in the southern part of central europe. it is composed of nine federated states (bundesländer), one of which is vienna, austria's capital and its largest city. it is bordered by germany to the northwest, czech republic to the north, slovakia to the northeast, hungary to the east, slovenia and italy to the south, and switzerland and liechtenstein to the west. austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people. while german is the country's official language,[10] many austrians communicate informally in a variety of bavarian dialects.[11]

    austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. in the 16th century, austria started serving as the heart of the habsburg monarchy and the junior branch of the house of habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. as an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the holy roman empire. early in the 19th century, austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the german confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other german states. following the austro-prussian war and the compromise with hungary, the dual monarchy was established.

    austria was involved in world war i under emperor franz joseph following the assassination of archduke ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the austro-hungarian throne. after the defeat and the dissolution of the monarchy, the republic of german-austria was proclaimed with the intent of the union with germany, which eventually failed because of the allied powers and the state remained unrecognized. in 1919 the first austrian republic became the legal successor of austria. in 1938, the austrian-born adolf hitler, who became the chancellor of the german reich, achieved the annexation of austria by the anschluss. following the defeat of nazi germany in 1945 and an extended period of allied occupation, austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the second republic.

    austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected federal president as head of state and a chancellor as head of the federal government. major urban areas of austria include graz, linz, salzburg and innsbruck. austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by gdp per capita terms. the country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its human development index. vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.[12]

    the second republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. austria has been a member of the united nations since 1955 and[13] joined the european union in 1995.[14] it plays host to the osce and opec and is a founding member of the oecd and interpol.[15] austria also signed the schengen agreement in 1995,[16] and adopted the euro currency in 1999.[17]

  • etymology
  • history
  • politics
  • geography
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • references
  • external links
  • external links

Republic of Austria

Republik Österreich  (German)
Anthem: 
Location of Austria (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Austria (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vienna
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200; 16.350
Official language
and national language
German[a][b]
Recognised languages
Ethnic groups
(2012)
Religion
Demonym(s)Austrian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Alexander Van der Bellen
Sebastian Kurz
Werner Kogler
Wolfgang Sobotka
Christoph Grabenwarter
LegislatureParliament
Federal Council
National Council
Establishment history
976
1156
1453
1804
1867
1918
1934
• Anschluss
1938
since 1945
• State Treaty in effect
27 July 1955
14 December 1955
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
• Water (%)
1.7
Population
• January 2020 estimate
Increase8,902,600[5] (96th)
• Density
106/km2 (274.5/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$461.432 billion[6]
• Per capita
$51,936[6] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$477.672 billion[6] (29th)
• Per capita
$53,764[6] (13th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 26.8[7]
low · 14th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.914[8]
very high · 20th
CurrencyEuro ()[c] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+43
ISO 3166 codeAT
Internet TLD.at[d]
  1. ^ There is an official dictionary, the Österreichisches Wörterbuch, published on commission by the Austrian Ministry of Education.
  2. ^ Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Romani, Slovak, and Slovene are officially recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML).
  3. ^ Austrian schilling before 1999; Virtual Euro since 1 January 1999; Euro since 1 January 2002.
  4. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Austria (ə/ (About this soundlisten), s-/;[9] German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, About this soundlisten ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and its largest city. It is bordered by Germany to the northwest, Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people. While German is the country's official language,[10] many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects.[11]

Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other German states. Following the Austro-Prussian War and the compromise with Hungary, the Dual Monarchy was established.

Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of the union with Germany, which eventually failed because of the Allied Powers and the state remained unrecognized. In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.[12]

The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and[13] joined the European Union in 1995.[14] It plays host to the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol.[15] Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995,[16] and adopted the euro currency in 1999.[17]