Australia

  • commonwealth of australia

    a blue field with the union flag in the upper hoist quarter, a large white seven-pointed star in the lower hoist quarter, and constellation of five white stars in the fly – one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars.
    flag
    coat of arms of australia
    coat of arms
    anthem: advance australia fair[n 1]
    a map of the eastern hemisphere centred on australia, using an orthographic projection.
    commonwealth of australia, including the australian territorial claim in the antarctic
    capitalcanberra
    35°18′29″s 149°07′28″e / 35°18′29″s 149°07′28″e / -35.30806; 149.12444
    largest citysydney
    national languageenglish[n 2]
    religion
    (2016)[3]
    demonym(s)
    • australian
      aussie (colloquial)[4][5]
    governmentfederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    • monarch
    elizabeth ii
    • governor-general
    david hurley
    • prime minister
    scott morrison
    • deputy prime minister
    michael mccormack
    • treasurer
    josh frydenberg
    • chief justice
    susan kiefel
    legislatureparliament
    • upper house
    senate
    • lower house
    house of representatives
    independence 
    from the united kingdom
    • federation, constitution
    1 january 1901
    • statute of westminster adoption act
    9 october 1942 (with effect
    from 3 september 1939)
    • australia act
    3 march 1986
    area
    • total
    7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
    • water (%)
    0.76
    population
    • 2020 estimate
    25,670,500[6] (51st)
    • 2016 census
    23,401,892[7]
    • density
    3.3/km2 (8.5/sq mi) (236th)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $1.423 trillion[8] (19th)
    • per capita
    increase $54,799 [8] (17th)
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    decrease $1.375 trillion[8] (13th)
    • per capita
    decrease $52,952[8] (10th)
    gini (2018)34.0[9]
    medium · 22nd
    hdi (2018)increase 0.938[10]
    very high · 6th
    currencyaustralian dollar (aud)
    time zoneutc+8; +9.5; +10 (various[n 4])
    • summer (dst)
    utc+8; +9.5; +10;
    +10.5; +11
    (various[n 4])
    date formatdd/mm/yyyy
    yyyy-mm-dd[11]
    driving sideleft
    calling code+61
    iso 3166 codeau
    internet tld.au

    australia, officially the commonwealth of australia,[12] is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the australian continent, the island of tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. it is the largest country in oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. the population of 26 million[6] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[13] australia's capital is canberra, and its largest city is sydney. the country's other major metropolitan areas are melbourne, brisbane, perth, and adelaide.

    indigenous australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years[14] prior to the first arrival of dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it new holland. in 1770, australia's eastern half was claimed by great britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of new south wales from 26 january 1788, a date which became australia's national day. the population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. on 1 january 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the commonwealth of australia. australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.

    australia is the oldest,[15] flattest,[16] and driest inhabited continent,[17][18] with the least fertile soils.[19][20] it has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi).[21] a megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world.[22][better source needed] australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.[23][24][25]

    australia is a highly developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy. it has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income.[26] it is a regional power and has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure.[27] australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population.[28][29] having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, and political rights,[30] with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys.[31] australia is a member of the united nations, g20, commonwealth of nations, anzus, organisation for economic co-operation and development (oecd), world trade organization, asia-pacific economic cooperation, pacific islands forum, and the asean plus six mechanism.

  • name
  • history
  • geography
  • government and politics
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Commonwealth of Australia

A map of the eastern hemisphere centred on Australia, using an orthographic projection.
Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic
CapitalCanberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / -35.30806; 149.12444
Largest citySydney
National languageEnglish[N 2]
Religion
(2016)[3]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
David Hurley
Scott Morrison
Michael McCormack
• Treasurer
Josh Frydenberg
Susan Kiefel
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
1 January 1901
9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
3 March 1986
Area
• Total
7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
0.76
Population
• 2020 estimate
25,670,500[6] (51st)
• 2016 census
23,401,892[7]
• Density
3.3/km2 (8.5/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.423 trillion[8] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $54,799 [8] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $1.375 trillion[8] (13th)
• Per capita
Decrease $52,952[8] (10th)
Gini (2018)34.0[9]
medium · 22nd
HDI (2018)Increase 0.938[10]
very high · 6th
CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+8; +9.5; +10 (Various[N 4])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8; +9.5; +10;
+10.5; +11
(Various[N 4])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd[11]
Driving sideleft
Calling code+61
ISO 3166 codeAU
Internet TLD.au

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia,[12] is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The population of 26 million[6] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[13] Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years[14] prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.

Australia is the oldest,[15] flattest,[16] and driest inhabited continent,[17][18] with the least fertile soils.[19][20] It has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi).[21] A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world.[22][better source needed] Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.[23][24][25]

Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income.[26] It is a regional power and has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure.[27] Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population.[28][29] Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, and political rights,[30] with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys.[31] Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.