Aspirin

  • aspirin
    aspirin-skeletal.svg
    aspirin-b-3d-balls.png
    clinical data
    pronunciationacetylsalicylic acid k/
    trade namesbayer aspirin, many others
    other names2-acetoxybenzoic acid
    acetylsalicylate
    acetylsalicylic acid
    o-acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin (ban uk), aspirin (usan us)
    ahfs/monograph
    a682878
    license data
    • eu by inn
    • us acetylsalicylic_acid
    • us aspirin
    pregnancy
    category
    • au: c [1]
    • us: n (not classified yet) [1]
    routes of
    administration
    by mouth, rectal, lysine acetylsalicylate may be given intravenously or intramuscularly
    atc code
    • who) who), who)
    legal status
    legal status
    • au: otc except when given intravenously (in which case it is schedule 4), used in animal medicine (schedule 5/6) or when the dose is higher than usual.
    • uk: general sales list (gsl, otc)
    • us: otc / rx-only
    pharmacokinetic data
    bioavailability80–100%[3]
    protein binding80–90%[2]
    metabolismliver, (cyp2c19 and possibly cyp3a), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut wall.[2]
    half-lifedose-dependent; 2 h to 3 h for low doses (100 mg or less), 15 h to 30 h for large doses.[2]
    excretionurine (80–100%), sweat, saliva, feces[3]
    identifiers
    50-78-2 ☑y
    2244
    4139
    db00945 ☑y
    2157 ☑y
    r16co5y76e
    d00109 ☑y
    chebi:15365 ☑y
    chembl25 ☑y
    pdb rcsb pdb)
    dtxsid5020108 edit this at wikidata
    100.000.059 edit this at wikidata
    chemical and physical data
    formulac9h8o4
    molar mass180.158[4] g·mol−1
    3d model (interactive image
    density1.40 g/cm3
    melting point136 °c (277 °f) [4]
    boiling point140 °c (284 °f) (decomposes)
    solubility in water3
      (verify)

    aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (asa), is a medication used to reduce pain, fever, or inflammation.[5] specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.[5] aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.[5] aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk.[5] it may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.[6] for pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes.[5] aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsaid) and works similarly to other nsaids but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.[5]

    one common adverse effect is an upset stomach.[5] more significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma.[5] bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other nsaids, or are on other blood thinners.[5] aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.[5] it is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of reye syndrome.[5] high doses may result in ringing in the ears.[5]

    a precursor to aspirin found in leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years.[7][8] in 1853, chemist charles frédéric gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time.[9] for the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient production methods.[9]:69–75 in 1897, scientists at the bayer company began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement medication for common salicylate medicines.[9]:69–75[10] by 1899, bayer had named it "aspirin" and sold it around the world.[11] aspirin's popularity grew over the first half of the twentieth century leading to competition between many brands and formulations.[12] the word aspirin was bayer's brand name; however, their rights to the trademark were lost or sold in many countries.[12]

    aspirin is one of the most widely used medications globally, with an estimated 40,000 tonnes (44,000 tons) (50 to 120 billion pills) consumed each year.[7][13] it is on the world health organization's list of essential medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[14] as of 2014, the wholesale cost in the developing world is us$0.002 to us$0.025 per dose.[15] as of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the united states is less than us$25.00.[16] it is available as a generic medication.[5] in 2016, it was the 38th most prescribed medication in the united states, with more than 19 million prescriptions.[17]

  • medical use
  • adverse effects
  • chemical properties
  • physical properties
  • mechanism of action
  • pharmacokinetics
  • history
  • veterinary medicine
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Aspirin
Aspirin-skeletal.svg
Aspirin-B-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Pronunciationacetylsalicylic acid k/
Trade namesBayer Aspirin, many others
Other names2-acetoxybenzoic acid
acetylsalicylate
acetylsalicylic acid
O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US)
AHFS/Monograph
a682878
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C [1]
  • US: N (Not classified yet) [1]
Routes of
administration
by mouth, rectal, lysine acetylsalicylate may be given intravenously or intramuscularly
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: OTC except when given intravenously (in which case it is schedule 4), used in animal medicine (schedule 5/6) or when the dose is higher than usual.
  • UK: General sales list (GSL, OTC)
  • US: OTC / Rx-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability80–100%[3]
Protein binding80–90%[2]
MetabolismLiver, (CYP2C19 and possibly CYP3A), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut wall.[2]
half-lifeDose-dependent; 2 h to 3 h for low doses (100 mg or less), 15 h to 30 h for large doses.[2]
ExcretionUrine (80–100%), sweat, saliva, feces[3]
Identifiers
50-78-2 ☑Y
2244
4139
DB00945 ☑Y
2157 ☑Y
R16CO5Y76E
D00109 ☑Y
CHEBI:15365 ☑Y
ChEMBL25 ☑Y
PDB RCSB PDB)
DTXSID5020108 Edit this at Wikidata
100.000.059 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC9H8O4
Molar mass180.158[4] g·mol−1
3D model (Interactive image
Density1.40 g/cm3
Melting point136 °C (277 °F) [4]
Boiling point140 °C (284 °F) (decomposes)
Solubility in water3
  (verify)

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to reduce pain, fever, or inflammation.[5] Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.[5] Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.[5] Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk.[5] It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.[6] For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes.[5] Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.[5]

One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.[5] More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma.[5] Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners.[5] Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.[5] It is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.[5] High doses may result in ringing in the ears.[5]

A precursor to aspirin found in leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years.[7][8] In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time.[9] For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient production methods.[9]:69–75 In 1897, scientists at the Bayer company began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement medication for common salicylate medicines.[9]:69–75[10] By 1899, Bayer had named it "Aspirin" and sold it around the world.[11] Aspirin's popularity grew over the first half of the twentieth century leading to competition between many brands and formulations.[12] The word Aspirin was Bayer's brand name; however, their rights to the trademark were lost or sold in many countries.[12]

Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications globally, with an estimated 40,000 tonnes (44,000 tons) (50 to 120 billion pills) consumed each year.[7][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[14] As of 2014, the wholesale cost in the developing world is US$0.002 to US$0.025 per dose.[15] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is less than US$25.00.[16] It is available as a generic medication.[5] In 2016, it was the 38th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 19 million prescriptions.[17]