Arabic

  • arabic
    اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ
    al-ʿarabiyyah
    arabic albayancalligraphy.svg
    al-ʿarabiyyah in written arabic (naskh script)
    pronunciation/ˈʕarabiː/, /alʕaraˈbijːa/
    native tocountries of the arab league, minorities in neighboring countries and some parts of asia, africa, europe
    ethnicityarabs, arab-berbers, afro-arabs, among others
    native speakers
    310 million, all varieties (2011–2016)[1]
    270 million l2 speakers of standard (modern) arabic[1]
    language family
    afro-asiatic
    • semitic
      • west semitic
        • central semitic
          • north arabian
            • arabic
    early form
    proto-arabic
    old arabic
    old hijazi
    classical arabic
    standard forms
    modern standard arabic
    dialects
    • western (maghrebi)
    • northern (egyptian, mesopotamian, levantine)
    • southern (peninsular gulf, hejazi, najdi and yemeni)
    writing system
    arabic alphabet
    arabic braille
    syriac
    hebrew
    greek
    latin (incl. arabic chat alphabet, hassaniya (in senegal)[2])
    signed forms
    signed arabic (national forms)
    official status
    official language in
    modern standard arabic is an official language of 26 states and 1 disputed territory, the third most after english and french[3]
    recognised minority
    language in
    regulated by
    language codes
    ar
    ara
    iso 639-3ara – inclusive code
    individual codes:
    arq – algerian arabic
    aao – algerian saharan arabic
    bbz – babalia creole arabic
    abv – baharna arabic
    shu – chadian arabic
    acy – cypriot arabic
    adf – dhofari arabic
    avl – eastern egyptian bedawi arabic
    arz – egyptian arabic
    afb – gulf arabic
    ayh – hadrami arabic
    acw – hijazi arabic
    ayl – libyan arabic
    acm – mesopotamian arabic
    ary – moroccan arabic
    ars – najdi arabic
    apc – north levantine arabic
    ayp – north mesopotamian arabic
    acx – omani arabic
    aec – saidi arabic
    ayn – sanaani arabic
    ssh – shihhi arabic
    ajp – south levantine arabic
    arb – standard arabic
    apd – sudanese arabic
    pga – sudanese creole arabic
    acq – taizzi-adeni arabic
    abh – tajiki arabic
    aeb – tunisian arabic
    auz – uzbeki arabic
    arab1395[4]
    linguasphere12-aac
    dispersión lengua árabe.png
    dispersion of native arabic speakers as the majority (dark green) or minority (light green) population
    arabic speaking world.svg
    use of arabic as the national language (green), as an official language (dark blue) and as a regional/minority language (light blue)
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    arabic (اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ, al-ʿarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijːa] (about this soundlisten) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʿarabīy, [ˈʕarabiː] (about this soundlisten) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries ce.[5] it is now the lingua franca of the arab world.[6] it is named after the arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by mesopotamia in the east and the anti-lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern arabia and in the sinai peninsula. the iso assigns language codes to thirty varieties of arabic, including its standard form, modern standard arabic,[7] also referred to as literary arabic, which is modernized classical arabic. this distinction exists primarily among western linguists; arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between modern standard arabic and classical arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā (اَلعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ,[8] "the purest arabic") or simply al-fuṣḥā (اَلْفُصْحَىٰ).

    arabic is widely taught in schools and universities and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government and the media. arabic, in its standard form, is the official language of 26 states, as well as the liturgical language of the religion of islam, since the quran and hadith were written in arabic.

    during the middle ages, arabic was a major vehicle of culture in europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. as a result, many european languages have also borrowed many words from it. arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in european languages—mainly spanish and to a lesser extent portuguese and catalan—owing to both the proximity of christian european and muslim arab civilizations and the long-lasting arabic culture and language presence mainly in southern iberia during the al-andalus era. sicilian has about 500 arabic words, many of which relate to agriculture and related activities,[9][full citation needed] as a legacy of the emirate of sicily from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries, while maltese language is a semitic language developed from a dialect of arabic and written in the latin alphabet.[10] the balkan languages, including greek and bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of arabic words through contact with ottoman turkish.

    arabic has influenced many other languages around the globe throughout its history. some of the most influenced languages are persian, turkish, hindustani (hindi and urdu), kashmiri, kurdish, bosnian, kazakh, bengali, malay (indonesian and malaysian), maldivian, pashto, punjabi, albanian, armenian, azerbaijani, sicilian, spanish, greek, bulgarian, tagalog, assamese, sindhi, odia[11] and hausa and some languages in parts of africa. conversely, arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including hebrew, greek, aramaic, and persian in medieval times and languages such as english and french in modern times.

    arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion muslims, and arabic[12] is one of six official languages of the united nations.[13][14][15][16] all varieties of arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the arab world,[17] making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. arabic is written with the arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ascii latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

  • classification
  • history
  • classical, modern standard and spoken arabic
  • language and dialect
  • influence of arabic on other languages
  • influence of other languages on arabic
  • arabic alphabet and nationalism
  • the language of the quran and its influence on poetry
  • dialects and descendants
  • phonology
  • grammar
  • writing system
  • language-standards regulators
  • as a foreign language
  • arabic speakers and other languages
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Arabic
اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ
al-ʿarabiyyah
Arabic albayancalligraphy.svg
Al-ʿArabiyyah in written Arabic (Naskh script)
Pronunciation/ˈʕarabiː/, /alʕaraˈbijːa/
Native toCountries of the Arab League, minorities in neighboring countries and some parts of Asia, Africa, Europe
EthnicityArabs, Arab-Berbers, Afro-Arabs, among others
Native speakers
310 million, all varieties (2011–2016)[1]
270 million L2 speakers of Standard (Modern) Arabic[1]
Early form
Standard forms
Dialects
Arabic alphabet
Arabic Braille
Syriac
Hebrew
Greek
Latin (incl. Arabic chat alphabet, Hassaniya (in Senegal)[2])
Signed Arabic (national forms)
Official status
Official language in
Modern Standard Arabic is an official language of 26 states and 1 disputed territory, the third most after English and French[3]
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by
Language codes
ar
ara
ISO 639-3ara – inclusive code
Individual codes:
arq – Algerian Arabic
aao – Algerian Saharan Arabic
bbz – Babalia Creole Arabic
abv – Baharna Arabic
shu – Chadian Arabic
acy – Cypriot Arabic
adf – Dhofari Arabic
avl – Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic
arz – Egyptian Arabic
afb – Gulf Arabic
ayh – Hadrami Arabic
acw – Hijazi Arabic
ayl – Libyan Arabic
acm – Mesopotamian Arabic
ary – Moroccan Arabic
ars – Najdi Arabic
apc – North Levantine Arabic
ayp – North Mesopotamian Arabic
acx – Omani Arabic
aec – Saidi Arabic
ayn – Sanaani Arabic
ssh – Shihhi Arabic
ajp – South Levantine Arabic
arb – Standard Arabic
apd – Sudanese Arabic
pga – Sudanese Creole Arabic
acq – Taizzi-Adeni Arabic
abh – Tajiki Arabic
aeb – Tunisian Arabic
auz – Uzbeki Arabic
arab1395[4]
Linguasphere12-AAC
Dispersión lengua árabe.png
Dispersion of native Arabic speakers as the majority (dark green) or minority (light green) population
Arabic speaking world.svg
Use of Arabic as the national language (green), as an official language (dark blue) and as a regional/minority language (light blue)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Arabic (اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ, al-ʿarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijːa] (About this soundlisten) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʿarabīy, [ˈʕarabiː] (About this soundlisten) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO assigns language codes to thirty varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā (اَلعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ,[8] "the purest Arabic") or simply al-fuṣḥā (اَلْفُصْحَىٰ).

Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government and the media. Arabic, in its standard form, is the official language of 26 states, as well as the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic.

During the Middle Ages, Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages—mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese and Catalan—owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and the long-lasting Arabic culture and language presence mainly in Southern Iberia during the Al-Andalus era. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words, many of which relate to agriculture and related activities,[9][full citation needed] as a legacy of the Emirate of Sicily from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries, while Maltese language is a Semitic language developed from a dialect of Arabic and written in the Latin alphabet.[10] The Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish.

Arabic has influenced many other languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Maldivian, Pashto, Punjabi, Albanian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Sicilian, Spanish, Greek, Bulgarian, Tagalog, Assamese, Sindhi, Odia[11] and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, and Persian in medieval times and languages such as English and French in modern times.

Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, and Arabic[12] is one of six official languages of the United Nations.[13][14][15][16] All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world,[17] making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.