Albania

  • republic of albania

    republika e shqipërisë
    red flag with a black double-headed eagle in the center.
    flag
    coat of arms of albania.svg
    coat of arms
    motto: ti shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin shqipëtar  (albanian)
    you albania, give me honour, give me the name albanian
    anthem: himni i flamurit  (albanian)
    (english: "hymn to the flag")
    albania (orthographic projection).svg
    capital
    and largest city
    tirana
    41°19′n 19°49′e / 41°19′n 19°49′e / 41.317; 19.817
    official languagesalbanian
    recognised minority languages
    • greek
    • aromanian
    • macedonian
    • others
    demonym(s)albanian
    governmentunitary parliamentary constitutional republic
    • president
    ilir meta
    • prime minister
    edi rama
    legislaturekuvendi
    establishment history
    • principality of arbanon
    1190
    • kingdom of albania
    february 1272
    • princedom of albania
    1368
    • league of lezhë
    2 march 1444
    • proclamation of independence from the ottoman empire
    28 november 1912
    • principality of albania (recognised)
    29 july 1913
    • 1st republic of albania
    31 january 1925
    • kingdom of albania
    1 september 1928
    • 2nd republic of albania
    11 january 1946
    • 3rd republic of albania
    28 december 1976
    • 4th republic of albania
    current constitution
    29 april 1991

    28 november 1998
    area
    • total
    28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) (140th)
    • water (%)
    4.7
    population
    • january 2017 estimate
    increase 2,876,591[1]
    • 2011 census
    2,821,977[2]
    • density
    98/km2 (253.8/sq mi) (63rd)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    $42.594 billion[3]
    • per capita
    $14,866[3]
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    $16.753 billion[3]
    • per capita
    $5,847[3]
    gini (2013)34.5[4]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.791[5]
    high · 69th
    currencylek (all)
    time zoneutc+1 (cet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+2 (cest)
    date formatdd/mm/yyyy
    driving sideright
    calling code+355
    iso 3166 codeal
    internet tld.al

    albania (l-/ (about this soundlisten) bay-nee-ə; albanian: shqipëri or shqipëria; gheg albanian: shqipni or shqipnia also shqypni or shqypnia),[6] officially the republic of albania (albanian: republika e shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in southeast europe on the adriatic and ionian sea within the mediterranean sea. it shares land borders with montenegro to the northwest, kosovo[a] to the northeast, north macedonia to the east, greece to the south and maritime borders with greece, montenegro and italy to the west.

    geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the albanian alps as well as the korab, skanderbeg, pindus and ceraunian mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the albanian adriatic and ionian sea along the mediterranean sea.

    historically, the country has been inhabited by numerous civilisations such as the illyrians, thracians, ancient greeks, romans, byzantines, venetians and ottomans. the albanians established the autonomous principality of arbër in the 12th century. the kingdom of albania and principality of albania formed between the 13th and 14th centuries. prior to the ottoman conquest of albania in the 15th century, the albanian resistance to ottoman expansion into europe led by gjergj kastrioti skanderbeg won them acclaim over most of europe.

    between the 18th and 19th centuries, albanians gathered both spiritual and intellectual strength which conclusively led to the albanian renaissance. after the defeat of the ottomans in the balkan wars, the modern nation state of albania declared independence in 1912.[7] in the 20th century, the kingdom of albania was invaded by italy which formed greater albania before becoming a protectorate of nazi germany.[8] enver hoxha formed communist albania after the second world war and launched the albanians on a path of oppression and decades of isolation. the revolutions of 1991 concluded the fall of communism in albania and eventually the establishment of the current republic of albania.

    politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the service sector, followed by manufacturing.[9] it went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from centralized planning to a market-based economy.[10][11][12] albania provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.[5]

    the country is a member of the united nations, world bank, unesco, nato, wto, coe, osce and oic. it is an official candidate for membership in the european union.[13] it is one of the founding members of the energy community, including the organization of the black sea economic cooperation and union for the mediterranean.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • administrative divisions
  • politics
  • economy
  • infrastructure
  • demography
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Republic of Albania

Republika e Shqipërisë
Motto: Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqipëtar  (Albanian)
You Albania, give me honour, give me the name Albanian
Anthem: Himni i Flamurit  (Albanian)
(English: "Hymn to the Flag")
Albania (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Tirana
41°19′N 19°49′E / 41°19′N 19°49′E / 41.317; 19.817
Official languagesAlbanian
Recognised minority languages
Demonym(s)Albanian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Ilir Meta
Edi Rama
LegislatureKuvendi
Establishment history
1190
February 1272
1368
2 March 1444
• Proclamation of independence from the Ottoman Empire
28 November 1912
• Principality of Albania (Recognised)
29 July 1913
31 January 1925
1 September 1928
11 January 1946
28 December 1976
• 4th Republic of Albania
Current constitution
29 April 1991

28 November 1998
Area
• Total
28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) (140th)
• Water (%)
4.7
Population
• January 2017 estimate
Increase 2,876,591[1]
• 2011 census
2,821,977[2]
• Density
98/km2 (253.8/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$42.594 billion[3]
• Per capita
$14,866[3]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$16.753 billion[3]
• Per capita
$5,847[3]
Gini (2013)34.5[4]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.791[5]
high · 69th
CurrencyLek (ALL)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+355
ISO 3166 codeAL
Internet TLD.al

Albania (l-/ (About this soundlisten) BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni or Shqipnia also Shqypni or Shqypnia),[6] officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo[a] to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and maritime borders with Greece, Montenegro and Italy to the west.

Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea.

Historically, the country has been inhabited by numerous civilisations such as the Illyrians, Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians and Ottomans. The Albanians established the autonomous Principality of Arbër in the 12th century. The Kingdom of Albania and Principality of Albania formed between the 13th and 14th centuries. Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Albania in the 15th century, the Albanian resistance to Ottoman expansion into Europe led by Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg won them acclaim over most of Europe.

Between the 18th and 19th centuries, Albanians gathered both spiritual and intellectual strength which conclusively led to the Albanian Renaissance. After the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars, the modern nation state of Albania declared independence in 1912.[7] In the 20th century, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy which formed Greater Albania before becoming a protectorate of Nazi Germany.[8] Enver Hoxha formed Communist Albania after the Second World War and launched the Albanians on a path of oppression and decades of isolation. The Revolutions of 1991 concluded the fall of communism in Albania and eventually the establishment of the current Republic of Albania.

Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the service sector, followed by manufacturing.[9] It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from centralized planning to a market-based economy.[10][11][12] Albania provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.[5]

The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC. It is an official candidate for membership in the European Union.[13] It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.