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1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1899th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 899th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1899, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 22 – The leaders of six Australian colonies meet in Melbourne, to discuss the confederation of Australia as a whole.
- January 23
- February 2 – The participants in the Australian Premiers' Conference, held in Melbourne, agree that Australia's capital (Canberra) should be located between Sydney and Melbourne.
- February 4 – The Philippine–American War begins as hostilities break out in Manila.
- February 6 – Spanish–American War: A peace treaty between the United States and Spain is ratified by the United States Senate.
- February 12–14 – Great Blizzard of 1899: Freezing temperatures and snow extend well south into North America, including southern Florida; it is the latest in a series of disasters to Florida's citrus industry.
- February 14 – Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress, for use in federal elections.
- February 15 – The February Manifesto is issued by the Emperor of Russia, decreeing that a veto by the Diet of Finland may be overruled in legislative matters concerning the interest of all Russia, including autonomous Finland. The manifesto is viewed as unconstitutional and a coup d'état by many Finns, who have come to consider their country a separate constitutional state in its own right, in union with the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the manifesto also fails to elaborate the criteria that a law has to meet in order to be considered to concern Russian imperial interests, and not an internal affair of Finland (affairs over which the Diet's authority is supposed have remained unaltered), leaving it to be decided by the autocratic Emperor. This results in Finnish fears that the Diet of Finland may be overruled arbitrarily.
- February 16 – Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur, the first club in Iceland, is established in the island's capital, Reykjavík.
- February 25 – In an accident at Grove Hill, Harrow, London, England, Edwin Sewell becomes the world's first driver of a petrol-driven vehicle to be killed; his passenger, Maj. James Richer, dies of injuries three days later.
- March 1 – In Afghanistan, Capt. George Roos-Keppel makes a sudden attack on a predatory band of Chamkannis that have been raiding in the Kurram Valley, and captures 100 prisoners with 3,000 head of cattle.
- March 2 – Mount Rainier National Park is established, in the U.S. state of Washington.
- March 4 – Cyclone Mahina strikes Bathurst Bay, Queensland. A 12 meter high wave reaches up to 5 km inland, leaving over 400 dead (the deadliest natural disaster in Australia's history).
- April 15 – Students at the University of California, Berkeley steal the Stanford Axe from Stanford University, yelling at leaders following a baseball game, thus establishing the Axe as a symbol of the rivalry between the schools.
- April 26 – Jean Sibelius's First Symphony premiers in Helsinki, Finland.
- May 3 – The Ferencvárosi TC club is founded in Budapest.
- May 13 – The Esporte Clube Vitória Association football club is founded in Salvador, Brazil.
- May 14 – The three time world champion is founded in Montevideo, Uruguay.
- May 18 – The First Hague Peace Conference is opened in The Hague by Willem de Beaufort, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.
- May 30 – Female outlaw Pearl Hart robs a stage coach 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Globe, Arizona.
- May 31 – The Harriman Alaska Expedition is launched.
- June 5 – Filpino army general Antonio Luna is assassinated.
- June 9 – American boxer James J. Jeffries knocks out Cornish-born Bob Fitzsimmons in the 11th round and wins the world heavyweight championship in a bout at Coney Island, New York.
- June 12 – The New Richmond tornado completely destroys the town of New Richmond, Wisconsin, killing 117 and injuring more than 200.
- June 17 – David Hilbert creates the modern concept of geometry, with the publication of his book Grundlagen der Geometrie, released on this date at Göttingen.
- June 19 – Edward Elgar's Enigma Variations premieres in London.
- June 20 – Right-wing nationalist movement Action Française formed in France
- June 22–27 – The highest ever recorded individual cricket score, 628 not out, is made by A. E. J. Collins. This record stood until 2016.
- June 25 – Three Denver newspapers publish a story (later proved to be a fabrication) that the Chinese government under the Guangxu Emperor is going to demolish the Great Wall of China.
- June 27 – The paperclip is patented by Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian inventor.
- June 30 – Mile-a-Minute Murphy earns his nickname after he becomes the first man to ride a bicycle for one-mile (1.6 km) in under a minute, on Long Island.
- July 1 – The International Council of Nurses is founded in London, at a meeting of the Matron's Council of Great Britain and Ireland.
- July 11 – Giovanni Agnelli founds the car company Fiat.
- July 14 – The first Republic of Acre is declared in South America.
- July 17
- July 21 – The Newsboys' strike takes place, when the Newsies of New York go on strike (until August 2).
- July 27 – Gold is discovered in Nome, Alaska, leading to the Nome Gold Rush.
- July 29 – The first international Peace Conference ends, with the signing of the First Hague Convention.
- July 30 – The Harriman Alaska Expedition ends successfully.
- July 31 – Duke of York Island, outside Antarctica, is discovered by explorer Carsten Borchgrevink and the British Southern Cross Expedition.
- August 3 – The John Marshall Law School is founded in Chicago.
- August 10 – Marshall "Major" Taylor wins the world 1-mile (1.6 km) professional cycling championship in Montreal, securing his place as the first African American world champion in any sport.
- August 17 – The San Ciriaco hurricane makes landfall in North Carolina's Outer Banks, completely destroying the town of Diamond City.
- August 28 – At least 512 are killed when a debris hill from the Sumitomo Besshi copper mine at Niihama, Shikoku, Japan, collapses after heavy rain; 122 houses, a smelting factory, hospital and many other facilities are destroyed.
- August 31 – The Olympique de Marseille association football club is founded in France.
- September 6 – The White Star Line's transatlantic ocean liner RMS Oceanic sails on her maiden voyage. At 17,272 gross tons and 704 ft (215 m), she is the largest ship afloat, following scrapping of the SS Great Eastern a decade earlier.
- September 13 – Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m or 17,057 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya.
- September 13 – Henry Bliss is the first person in the United States to be killed in an automobile accident.
- September 18 – Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag is registered for copyright, as ragtime music enjoys mainstream popularity in the United States.
- September 19 – Alfred Dreyfus is pardoned in France.
- October 9–14 – The Hanover Congress of the Social Democratic Party of Germany is held in Hanover.
- October 11 – The Second Boer War: In South Africa, a war between the United Kingdom and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State erupts.
- October 13 – Second Boer War: The siege of Mafeking begins.
- October 14 – Second Boer War: Kimberley comes under siege by the Boers.
- October 20 – Second Boer War – Battle of Talana Hill: In the first major clash of the conflict, near Dundee, Natal, the British Army drives the Boers from a hilltop position, but with heavy casualties, including their commanding general Sir Penn Symons.
- October 30 – Second Boer War: The Siege of Ladysmith begins.
- October 30 – The Augusta High School Building is completed in Augusta, Kentucky; Augusta Methodist College shuts down.
- November 4 – The Alpha Sigma Tau sorority is founded in Ypsilanti, Michigan.
- November 8 – The New York Zoological Society opens the Bronx Zoological Park to the public, in New York City.
- November 15 – The American Line's SS St. Paul becomes the first ocean liner to report her imminent arrival by wireless telegraphy, when Marconi's station at The Needles contacts her 66 nautical miles (122 km) off the coast of England.
- November 24 – Mahdist War – Battle of Umm Diwaykarat: A decisive British and Egyptian victory ends the war in the Sudan.
- November 29 – The FC Barcelona club is founded.
- December 2
- December 10
- December 11 – Second Boer War – Battle of Magersfontein: Boers defeat British forces trying to relieve the Siege of Kimberley.
- December 15 – Glasgow School of Art opens its new building, the most notable work of Scottish architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
- December 16
- December 26 – Pinnacle Rock, a Balancing rock in Cumberland Gap, falls down.
- December 31
- The last day of the 1800s.