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. (January 2016)
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1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1686th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 686th year of the 2nd millennium, the 86th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1686, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- Russia, Saxony, Brandenburg and Bavaria join the Holy League, against the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Imperial forces under Austrian leadership invade Ottoman-occupied Hungary and advance on Buda.
- The Swedish Church Law 1686 confirms and describes the rights of the Lutheran Church and confirms Sweden as a Lutheran state: all non-Lutherans are banned from immigration unless they convert to Lutheranism; the Romani people are to be incorporated to the Lutheran Church; the poor care law is regulated; and all parishes are forced by law to teach the children within them to read and write, in order to learn the scripture, which closely eradicates illiteracy in Sweden.
- In Greece, Ottoman-occupied Morea (i.e., the Peloponnese) falls to the Venetians.
- A hurricane saves Charleston, South Carolina from attack by Spanish vessels.
- English historian and naturalist Robert Plot publishes The Natural History of Staffordshire, a collection of illustrations and texts detailing the history of the county. It is the first document known to mention crop circles and a double sunset.
- The Café Procope, which remains in business in the 21st century, is opened in Paris by Procopio Cutò, as a coffeehouse.